An evaluation of trisodium phosphate, citric acid and lactic acid cloacal wash treatments to reduce Campylobacter, total viable counts (TVC) and total enterobacteriaceae counts (TEC) on broiler carcasses during processing

H Meredith, D.A. McDowell, D J Bolton

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    4 Citations (Scopus)

    Abstract

    Campylobacteriosis is the most common foodborne bacterial illness in Europe and most cases are associated with the consumption of poultry. Interventions are urgently required to reduce Campylobacter counts on poultry carcasses. While trisodium phosphate (TSP), citric acid (CA) and lactic acid (LA) are effective poultry carcass decontamination treatments, their direct application on carcasses is not permitted. This study examined their effectiveness in killing Campylobacter in cloacal contents before testing their efficacy as cloacal wash treatments immediately before defeathering. In laboratory experiments, fresh broiler cloacal contents inoculated with a 5 strain cocktail of Campylobacter jejuni (3) and Campylobacter coli (2) was treated with TSP (5, 10 & 20% w/v), CA (1, 5 & 10% w/v) and LA (1, 5 & 10% v/v)and surviving cells enumerated after 0, 4 and 10 min on mCCDA. The same chemical treatments were applied as a cloacal wash in a commercial broiler plant using naturally contaminated broiler carcasses.Carcass Campylobacter, TVC (psychrophile and mesophile) and TEC were determined immediately after defeathering and evisceration. TSP (20%, w/v), CA (5 & 10%, w/v) and LA (5 & 10%, w/v) reduced Campylobacter counts in broiler cloacal contents by approximately 2.0e2.5 log10 cfu g1 after 4 min.However, only an LA (5%, v/v) cloacal wash achieved a significant (P <0.05) reduction in carcass Campylobacter counts (0.66 log10 cfu cm-2) and this was obtained post evisceration. In general none of the treatments affected psychrophilic or mesophilic TVC with the exception of CA (5 & 10%, w/v), where post-evisceration counts were significantly (P <0.05) reduced by 0.88 log10 cfu cm-2 and 0.56 log10 cfu cm-2, respectively. None of the treatments significantly reduced TEC. This study provides further data supporting the application of cloacal washing but only as part of an overall package of measures designed to reduce Campylobacter contamination on broiler carcasses during processing.
    LanguageEnglish
    Pages149-152
    JournalFood Control
    Volume32
    Issue number1
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 2013

    Fingerprint

    sodium phosphate
    Campylobacter
    Enterobacteriaceae
    Citric Acid
    citric acid
    plate count
    lactic acid
    Lactic Acid
    broiler chickens
    evisceration
    Poultry
    poultry carcasses
    Campylobacter coli
    campylobacteriosis
    Campylobacter jejuni
    Foodborne Diseases
    Decontamination
    decontamination
    chemical treatment
    washing

    Cite this

    @article{798338b536184812a50e4c90de5abd62,
    title = "An evaluation of trisodium phosphate, citric acid and lactic acid cloacal wash treatments to reduce Campylobacter, total viable counts (TVC) and total enterobacteriaceae counts (TEC) on broiler carcasses during processing",
    abstract = "Campylobacteriosis is the most common foodborne bacterial illness in Europe and most cases are associated with the consumption of poultry. Interventions are urgently required to reduce Campylobacter counts on poultry carcasses. While trisodium phosphate (TSP), citric acid (CA) and lactic acid (LA) are effective poultry carcass decontamination treatments, their direct application on carcasses is not permitted. This study examined their effectiveness in killing Campylobacter in cloacal contents before testing their efficacy as cloacal wash treatments immediately before defeathering. In laboratory experiments, fresh broiler cloacal contents inoculated with a 5 strain cocktail of Campylobacter jejuni (3) and Campylobacter coli (2) was treated with TSP (5, 10 & 20{\%} w/v), CA (1, 5 & 10{\%} w/v) and LA (1, 5 & 10{\%} v/v)and surviving cells enumerated after 0, 4 and 10 min on mCCDA. The same chemical treatments were applied as a cloacal wash in a commercial broiler plant using naturally contaminated broiler carcasses.Carcass Campylobacter, TVC (psychrophile and mesophile) and TEC were determined immediately after defeathering and evisceration. TSP (20{\%}, w/v), CA (5 & 10{\%}, w/v) and LA (5 & 10{\%}, w/v) reduced Campylobacter counts in broiler cloacal contents by approximately 2.0e2.5 log10 cfu g1 after 4 min.However, only an LA (5{\%}, v/v) cloacal wash achieved a significant (P <0.05) reduction in carcass Campylobacter counts (0.66 log10 cfu cm-2) and this was obtained post evisceration. In general none of the treatments affected psychrophilic or mesophilic TVC with the exception of CA (5 & 10{\%}, w/v), where post-evisceration counts were significantly (P <0.05) reduced by 0.88 log10 cfu cm-2 and 0.56 log10 cfu cm-2, respectively. None of the treatments significantly reduced TEC. This study provides further data supporting the application of cloacal washing but only as part of an overall package of measures designed to reduce Campylobacter contamination on broiler carcasses during processing.",
    author = "H Meredith and D.A. McDowell and Bolton, {D J}",
    note = "Reference text: Anon. (2010). European Food Safety Authority; analysis of the baseline survey on the prevalence of Campylobacter in broiler batches and of Campylobacter and Salmonella on broiler carcasses, in the EU, 2008; part B: analysis of factors associated with Campylobacter colonisation of broiler batches and with Campylobacter contamination of broiler carcasses; and investigation of the culture method diagnostic characteristics used to analyse broiler carcass samples. EFSA Journal, 8(8), 1522, 1e132. Available online. www.efsa.europa.eu/ efsajournal.htm. Anon. (2011). EFSA Panel on Biological Hazards (BIOHAZ); scientific opinion on Campylobacter in broiler meat production: control options and performance objectives and/or targets at different stages of the food chain. EFSA Journal, 9(4), 2105, 1e141. Available online. www.efsa.europa.eu/efsajournal. Bashor, M. P., Curtis, P. A., Keener, K. M., Sheldon, B.W., Kathariou, S., & Osborne, J. A. (2004). Effects of carcass washers on Campylobacter contamination in large broiler processing plants. Poultry Science, 83, 1232e1239. Berrang, M. E., Buhr, R. J., Cason, J. A., & Dickens, J. A. (2001). Broiler carcass contamination with Campylobacter from feces during defeathering. Journal of Food Protection, 64, 2063e2066. Berrang, M. E., & Dickens, J. A. (2000). Presence and level of Campylobacter spp. on broiler carcasses throughout the processing plant. Journal of Applied Poultry Research, 9,43e47. Berrang, M. E., Smith, D. P., & Hinton, A. (2006a). Organic acids placed into the cloaca to reduce Campylobacter contamination of broiler skin during defeathering. Journal of Applied Poultry Research, 15, 287e291. Berrang, M. E., Smith, D. P., & Hinton, A. (2006b). Application of distilled white vinegar in the cloaca to counter the increase in Campylobacter numbers on broiler skin during feather removal. Journal of Food Protection, 69, 425e427. Buhr, R. J., Berrang, M. E., & Cason, J. A. (2003). Bacterial recovery from breast skin of genetically feathered and featherless broiler carcasses immediately following scalding and picking. Poultry Science, 82, 1641e1647. Ellerbrook, K. A., Lienau, J. A., Alter, T., & Schlichting, D. (2007). Effectiveness of different chemical decontamination methods on the Campylobacter load of poultry carcasses. Fleischwirtschaft, 4, 224e227. FAO/WHO. (2009). Risk assessment of Campylobacter spp. in broiler chickens: technical report. In Microbiological risk assessment series: Vol. 12 (p. 132). Guerin, M. T., Sir, C., Sargeant, J. M.,Waddell, L., O’Connor, A. M., Willis, R.W., et al. (2010). The change in prevalence of Campylobacter on chicken carcasses during processing: a systematic review. Poultry Science, 89, 1070e1084. Loretz, M., Stephan, R., & Zweifel, C. (2010). Antimicrobial activity of decontamination treatments for poultry carcasses: a literature survey. Food Control, 21(6), 791e804. Musgrove, M. T., Cason, J. A., Fletcher, D. L., Stern, N. J., Cox, N. A., & Bailey, J. S. (1997). Effect of cloacal plugging on microbial recovery from partially processed broilers. Poultry Science, 76, 530e533. Patriarchi, A., Maunsell, B., O’Mahony, E., Fox, A., Fanning, S., & Bolton, D. (2009). Prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in a subset of intensive poultry flocks in Ireland. Letters in Applied Microbiology, 49(3), 305e310. Riedel, C. T., Brondsted, L., Rosenquist, H., Haxgart, S. N., & Christensen, B. B. (2009). Chemical decontamination of Campylobacter jejuni on chicken skin and meat. Journal of Food Protection, 72(6), 1173e1180. del Rio, E., Panizo-Moran, M., Prieto, M., Alonso-Calleja, C., & Capita, R. (2007). Effect of chemical decontamination treatments on natural microflora and sensory characteristics of poultry. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 115, 268e280.",
    year = "2013",
    doi = "10.1016/j.foodcont.2012.11.026",
    language = "English",
    volume = "32",
    pages = "149--152",
    number = "1",

    }

    TY - JOUR

    T1 - An evaluation of trisodium phosphate, citric acid and lactic acid cloacal wash treatments to reduce Campylobacter, total viable counts (TVC) and total enterobacteriaceae counts (TEC) on broiler carcasses during processing

    AU - Meredith, H

    AU - McDowell, D.A.

    AU - Bolton, D J

    N1 - Reference text: Anon. (2010). European Food Safety Authority; analysis of the baseline survey on the prevalence of Campylobacter in broiler batches and of Campylobacter and Salmonella on broiler carcasses, in the EU, 2008; part B: analysis of factors associated with Campylobacter colonisation of broiler batches and with Campylobacter contamination of broiler carcasses; and investigation of the culture method diagnostic characteristics used to analyse broiler carcass samples. EFSA Journal, 8(8), 1522, 1e132. Available online. www.efsa.europa.eu/ efsajournal.htm. Anon. (2011). EFSA Panel on Biological Hazards (BIOHAZ); scientific opinion on Campylobacter in broiler meat production: control options and performance objectives and/or targets at different stages of the food chain. EFSA Journal, 9(4), 2105, 1e141. Available online. www.efsa.europa.eu/efsajournal. Bashor, M. P., Curtis, P. A., Keener, K. M., Sheldon, B.W., Kathariou, S., & Osborne, J. A. (2004). Effects of carcass washers on Campylobacter contamination in large broiler processing plants. Poultry Science, 83, 1232e1239. Berrang, M. E., Buhr, R. J., Cason, J. A., & Dickens, J. A. (2001). Broiler carcass contamination with Campylobacter from feces during defeathering. Journal of Food Protection, 64, 2063e2066. Berrang, M. E., & Dickens, J. A. (2000). Presence and level of Campylobacter spp. on broiler carcasses throughout the processing plant. Journal of Applied Poultry Research, 9,43e47. Berrang, M. E., Smith, D. P., & Hinton, A. (2006a). Organic acids placed into the cloaca to reduce Campylobacter contamination of broiler skin during defeathering. Journal of Applied Poultry Research, 15, 287e291. Berrang, M. E., Smith, D. P., & Hinton, A. (2006b). Application of distilled white vinegar in the cloaca to counter the increase in Campylobacter numbers on broiler skin during feather removal. Journal of Food Protection, 69, 425e427. Buhr, R. J., Berrang, M. E., & Cason, J. A. (2003). Bacterial recovery from breast skin of genetically feathered and featherless broiler carcasses immediately following scalding and picking. Poultry Science, 82, 1641e1647. Ellerbrook, K. A., Lienau, J. A., Alter, T., & Schlichting, D. (2007). Effectiveness of different chemical decontamination methods on the Campylobacter load of poultry carcasses. Fleischwirtschaft, 4, 224e227. FAO/WHO. (2009). Risk assessment of Campylobacter spp. in broiler chickens: technical report. In Microbiological risk assessment series: Vol. 12 (p. 132). Guerin, M. T., Sir, C., Sargeant, J. M.,Waddell, L., O’Connor, A. M., Willis, R.W., et al. (2010). The change in prevalence of Campylobacter on chicken carcasses during processing: a systematic review. Poultry Science, 89, 1070e1084. Loretz, M., Stephan, R., & Zweifel, C. (2010). Antimicrobial activity of decontamination treatments for poultry carcasses: a literature survey. Food Control, 21(6), 791e804. Musgrove, M. T., Cason, J. A., Fletcher, D. L., Stern, N. J., Cox, N. A., & Bailey, J. S. (1997). Effect of cloacal plugging on microbial recovery from partially processed broilers. Poultry Science, 76, 530e533. Patriarchi, A., Maunsell, B., O’Mahony, E., Fox, A., Fanning, S., & Bolton, D. (2009). Prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in a subset of intensive poultry flocks in Ireland. Letters in Applied Microbiology, 49(3), 305e310. Riedel, C. T., Brondsted, L., Rosenquist, H., Haxgart, S. N., & Christensen, B. B. (2009). Chemical decontamination of Campylobacter jejuni on chicken skin and meat. Journal of Food Protection, 72(6), 1173e1180. del Rio, E., Panizo-Moran, M., Prieto, M., Alonso-Calleja, C., & Capita, R. (2007). Effect of chemical decontamination treatments on natural microflora and sensory characteristics of poultry. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 115, 268e280.

    PY - 2013

    Y1 - 2013

    N2 - Campylobacteriosis is the most common foodborne bacterial illness in Europe and most cases are associated with the consumption of poultry. Interventions are urgently required to reduce Campylobacter counts on poultry carcasses. While trisodium phosphate (TSP), citric acid (CA) and lactic acid (LA) are effective poultry carcass decontamination treatments, their direct application on carcasses is not permitted. This study examined their effectiveness in killing Campylobacter in cloacal contents before testing their efficacy as cloacal wash treatments immediately before defeathering. In laboratory experiments, fresh broiler cloacal contents inoculated with a 5 strain cocktail of Campylobacter jejuni (3) and Campylobacter coli (2) was treated with TSP (5, 10 & 20% w/v), CA (1, 5 & 10% w/v) and LA (1, 5 & 10% v/v)and surviving cells enumerated after 0, 4 and 10 min on mCCDA. The same chemical treatments were applied as a cloacal wash in a commercial broiler plant using naturally contaminated broiler carcasses.Carcass Campylobacter, TVC (psychrophile and mesophile) and TEC were determined immediately after defeathering and evisceration. TSP (20%, w/v), CA (5 & 10%, w/v) and LA (5 & 10%, w/v) reduced Campylobacter counts in broiler cloacal contents by approximately 2.0e2.5 log10 cfu g1 after 4 min.However, only an LA (5%, v/v) cloacal wash achieved a significant (P <0.05) reduction in carcass Campylobacter counts (0.66 log10 cfu cm-2) and this was obtained post evisceration. In general none of the treatments affected psychrophilic or mesophilic TVC with the exception of CA (5 & 10%, w/v), where post-evisceration counts were significantly (P <0.05) reduced by 0.88 log10 cfu cm-2 and 0.56 log10 cfu cm-2, respectively. None of the treatments significantly reduced TEC. This study provides further data supporting the application of cloacal washing but only as part of an overall package of measures designed to reduce Campylobacter contamination on broiler carcasses during processing.

    AB - Campylobacteriosis is the most common foodborne bacterial illness in Europe and most cases are associated with the consumption of poultry. Interventions are urgently required to reduce Campylobacter counts on poultry carcasses. While trisodium phosphate (TSP), citric acid (CA) and lactic acid (LA) are effective poultry carcass decontamination treatments, their direct application on carcasses is not permitted. This study examined their effectiveness in killing Campylobacter in cloacal contents before testing their efficacy as cloacal wash treatments immediately before defeathering. In laboratory experiments, fresh broiler cloacal contents inoculated with a 5 strain cocktail of Campylobacter jejuni (3) and Campylobacter coli (2) was treated with TSP (5, 10 & 20% w/v), CA (1, 5 & 10% w/v) and LA (1, 5 & 10% v/v)and surviving cells enumerated after 0, 4 and 10 min on mCCDA. The same chemical treatments were applied as a cloacal wash in a commercial broiler plant using naturally contaminated broiler carcasses.Carcass Campylobacter, TVC (psychrophile and mesophile) and TEC were determined immediately after defeathering and evisceration. TSP (20%, w/v), CA (5 & 10%, w/v) and LA (5 & 10%, w/v) reduced Campylobacter counts in broiler cloacal contents by approximately 2.0e2.5 log10 cfu g1 after 4 min.However, only an LA (5%, v/v) cloacal wash achieved a significant (P <0.05) reduction in carcass Campylobacter counts (0.66 log10 cfu cm-2) and this was obtained post evisceration. In general none of the treatments affected psychrophilic or mesophilic TVC with the exception of CA (5 & 10%, w/v), where post-evisceration counts were significantly (P <0.05) reduced by 0.88 log10 cfu cm-2 and 0.56 log10 cfu cm-2, respectively. None of the treatments significantly reduced TEC. This study provides further data supporting the application of cloacal washing but only as part of an overall package of measures designed to reduce Campylobacter contamination on broiler carcasses during processing.

    U2 - 10.1016/j.foodcont.2012.11.026

    DO - 10.1016/j.foodcont.2012.11.026

    M3 - Article

    VL - 32

    SP - 149

    EP - 152

    IS - 1

    ER -