An evaluation of portion size estimation aids: Consumer perspectiveson their effectiveness

Gemma P Faulkner, M. Barbara E. Livingstone, Kirsty Pourshahidi, Michelle Spence, Moira Dean, Sinead O'Brien, Eileen Gibney, Julie Wallace, Tracy McCaffrey, Maeve. A. Kerr

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

4 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Objective: This qualitative study aimed to investigate consumer opinions on the usefulness of portion size estimation aids (PSEA); consumer preferences in terms of format and context for use; and the level of detail of guidance considered necessary for the effective application of PSEA.Design: Six focus groups (three to eight participants per group) were conducted to elicit views on PSEA. The discussions were recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed by two independent researchers using a template approach.Setting: The focus groups were conducted in 2013 by an experienced moderator in various sites across the island of Ireland (three in the Republic of Ireland and three in Northern Ireland) including local leisure, community and resource centres; the home environment; and a university meeting room. Participants: General population, males (n ¼ 17) and females (n ¼ 15) aged 18e64 years old. Participants were recruited from both urban and rural locations representing a range of socio-economic groups.Results: The majority of participants deemed the coloured portion pots and disposable plastic cup(household measures) to be useful particularly for the estimation of amorphous cereal products (e.g. breakfast cereals). Preferences were evident for “visual” PSEA (reference objects, household measures and food packaging) rather than ‘quantities and measures’ such as weighing in grams or ounces. Participants stated that PS education should be concise, consistent, from a reputable source, initiated at school age and communicated innovatively e.g. mobile app or TV advertisement. Guidance in relation to gender, age and activity level was favoured over a “one size fits all” approach.Conclusions: This study identified consumer preferences and acceptance of “visual” PSEA such as portion pots/cups to estimate appropriate PS of amorphous grain foods such as breakfast cereals, pasta and rice. Concise information from a reputable source in relation to gender, age and activity level should accompany PSEA.
LanguageEnglish
Pages200-208
JournalAppetite
Volume114
Early online date20 Mar 2017
DOIs
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 20 Mar 2017

Fingerprint

Portion Size
Breakfast
Interpersonal Relations
Focus Groups
Ireland
Mobile Applications
Food Packaging
Northern Ireland
Leisure Activities
Islands
Plastics
Economics
Research Personnel
Education
Food
Population

Keywords

  • Portion size
  • Obesity
  • Consumer
  • Energy intake

Cite this

Faulkner, Gemma P ; Livingstone, M. Barbara E. ; Pourshahidi, Kirsty ; Spence, Michelle ; Dean, Moira ; O'Brien, Sinead ; Gibney, Eileen ; Wallace, Julie ; McCaffrey, Tracy ; Kerr, Maeve. A. / An evaluation of portion size estimation aids: Consumer perspectiveson their effectiveness. In: Appetite. 2017 ; Vol. 114. pp. 200-208.
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title = "An evaluation of portion size estimation aids: Consumer perspectiveson their effectiveness",
abstract = "Objective: This qualitative study aimed to investigate consumer opinions on the usefulness of portion size estimation aids (PSEA); consumer preferences in terms of format and context for use; and the level of detail of guidance considered necessary for the effective application of PSEA.Design: Six focus groups (three to eight participants per group) were conducted to elicit views on PSEA. The discussions were recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed by two independent researchers using a template approach.Setting: The focus groups were conducted in 2013 by an experienced moderator in various sites across the island of Ireland (three in the Republic of Ireland and three in Northern Ireland) including local leisure, community and resource centres; the home environment; and a university meeting room. Participants: General population, males (n ¼ 17) and females (n ¼ 15) aged 18e64 years old. Participants were recruited from both urban and rural locations representing a range of socio-economic groups.Results: The majority of participants deemed the coloured portion pots and disposable plastic cup(household measures) to be useful particularly for the estimation of amorphous cereal products (e.g. breakfast cereals). Preferences were evident for “visual” PSEA (reference objects, household measures and food packaging) rather than ‘quantities and measures’ such as weighing in grams or ounces. Participants stated that PS education should be concise, consistent, from a reputable source, initiated at school age and communicated innovatively e.g. mobile app or TV advertisement. Guidance in relation to gender, age and activity level was favoured over a “one size fits all” approach.Conclusions: This study identified consumer preferences and acceptance of “visual” PSEA such as portion pots/cups to estimate appropriate PS of amorphous grain foods such as breakfast cereals, pasta and rice. Concise information from a reputable source in relation to gender, age and activity level should accompany PSEA.",
keywords = "Portion size, Obesity, Consumer, Energy intake",
author = "Faulkner, {Gemma P} and Livingstone, {M. Barbara E.} and Kirsty Pourshahidi and Michelle Spence and Moira Dean and Sinead O'Brien and Eileen Gibney and Julie Wallace and Tracy McCaffrey and Kerr, {Maeve. A.}",
note = "Compliant in UIR; evidence uploaded to 'Other files' Reference text: Anderson, A. S., Barton, K., Craigie, A., Freeman, J., Gregor, A., Stead, M., et al. (2008). Exploration of adult food portion size tools. Scotland: NHS Health Scotland Anderson, A. S., Freeman, J., Stead, M., Wrieden, W. L., & Barton, K. L. (2008). Consumer views on portion size guidance to assist adult dietary choices. Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics, 21, 375. Burger, K. S., Fisher, J. O., & Johnson, S. L. (2011). Mechanisms behind the portion size effect: Visibility and bite size. Obesity, 19, 546e551. Church, S. (2008). Trends in portion sizes in the UK e a preliminary review of published information. UK: Food Standards Agency. Condrasky, M., Ledikwe, J. H., Flood, J. E., & Rolls, B. J. (2007). Chefs' opinions of restaurant portion sizes. Obesity, 15, 2086e2094. Crabtree, B. F., & Miller, W. L. (1999). Using codes and code manuals: A template organizing style of interpretation. In B. F. Crabtree, & W. L. Miller (Eds.), Doing qualitative research (2nd ed.). Newbury Park, California: Sage. Daggett, L. M., & Rigdon, K. L. (2006). A computer-assisted instructional program for teaching portion size versus serving size. Journal of Community Health Nursing, 23, 29e35. Diliberti, N., Bordi, P. L., Conklin, M. T., Roe, L. S., & Rolls, B. J. (2004). Increased portion size leads to increased energy intake in a restaurant meal. Obesity Research, 12, 562e568. Elwood, P., & Longley, M. (2010). My health: Whose responsibility? A jury decides. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 64, 761e764. Faulkner, G. P., Kerr, M. A., Pourshahidi, K. P., Spence, M., Dean, M., O’Brien, S., et al. (2016). An evaluation of portion size estimation aids: Precision, ease of use and likelihood of future use. Public Health Nutrition, 19, 2377e2387. Faulkner, G. P., Pourshahidi, L. K., Wallace, J. M. W., Kerr, M. A., McCrorie, T. A., & Livingstone, M. B. E. (2012). Serving size guidance for consumers: Is it effective? Proceedings of the Nutrition Society, 71, 610e621. Flood, J. E., Roe, L. S., & Rolls, B. J. (2006). The effect of increased beverage portion size on energy intake at a meal. Journal of the American Dietetics Association, 106, 1984e1990. Flynn, M. A. T., O'Brien, C. M., Faulkner, G., Flynn, C. A., Gajownik, M., & Burke, S. J. (2012). Revision of food-based dietary guidelines for Ireland, phase 1: Evaluation of Ireland's food guide. Public Health Nutrition, 15, 518e526. Food Safety Authority of Ireland. (2011). Scientific recommendations for healthy eating in Ireland. Dublin: Food Safety Authority of Ireland. Food Safety Authority of Ireland. (2012). Healthy eating and active living for adults, teenagers and children over 5 years e a food guide for health professionals and catering services (Dublin: Ireland). Food Standards Agency. (2007). The Eatwell Plate. Available from: http://www.food. gov.uk/multimedia/pdfs/theeatwellplate.pdf. Geier, A. B., Rozin, P., & Doros, G. (2006). Unit bias - a new heuristic that helps explain the effect of portion size on food intake. Psychological Science, 17, 521e525. Health Canada. (2007). Eating well with Canada's food guide. Canada: Health Canada. Institute of Grocery Distribution. (2008). Portion size: A review of existing approaches. England: Institute of Grocery Distribution. Institute of Grocery Distribution. (2009). Portion size: Understanding the consumer perspective. England: Institute of Grocery Distribution. Jeffery, R. W., Rydell, S., Dunn, C. L., Harnack, L. J., Levine, A. S., Pentel, P. R., et al. (2007). Effects of portion size on chronic energy intake. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 4, 27. Kelly, M. T., Wallace, J. M. W., Robson, P. J., Rennie, K. L., Welch, R. W., Hannon- Fletcher, M. P., et al. (2009). Increased portion size leads to a sustained increase in energy intake over 4d in normal-weight and overweight men and women. British Journal of Nutrition, 102, 470e477. McCarthy, S., Robson, P., Livingstone, M., Kiely, M., Flynn, A., Cran, G. W., et al. (2006). Associations between daily food intake and excess adiposity in Irish adults: Towards the development of food-based dietary guidelines for reducing the prevalence of overweight and obesity. International Journal of Obesity, 30, 993e1002. National Health Service. (2003). 5 A DAY portion sizes. Available from: http://www. nhs.uk/Livewell/5ADAY/Pages/Portionsizes.aspx. Nielsen, S. J., & Popkin, B. M. (2003). Patterns and trends in food portion sizes, 1977- 1998. Journal of the American Medical Association, 289, 450e453. Poelman, M. P., Steenhuis, I. H. M., de Vet, E., & Seidell, J. C. (2013). The development and evaluation of an internet-based intervention to increase awareness about food portion sizes: A randomised control trial. Journal of Nutrition Education Behavior, 45(6), 701e707. Raynor, H. A., & Wing, R. R. (2007). Package unit size and amount of food: Do both influence intake? Obesity, 15, 2311e2319. Rolls, B. J., Roe, L. S., Kral, T. V. E., Meengs, J. S., & Wall, D. E. (2004). Increasing the portion size of a packaged snack increases energy intake in men and women. Appetite, 42, 63e69. Rolls, B. J., Roe, L. S., Meengs, J. S., & Wall, D. E. (2004). Increasing the portion size of a sandwich increases energy intake. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 104, 367e372. Rolls, B., Roe, L., & Meengs, J. (2006). Larger portion sizes lead to a sustained increase in energy intake over 2 days. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 106, 543e549. Smiciklas-Wright, H., Mitchell, D. C., Mickle, S. J., Goldman, J. D., & Cook, A. (2003). Foods commonly eaten in the United States, 1989-1991 and 1994-1996: Are portion sizes changing? Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 103, 41e47. Spence, M., Livingstone, M. B. E., Hollywood, L. E., Gibney, E. R., O’Brien, S. A., Pourshahidi, L. K., et al. (2013). A qualitative study of psychological, social and behavioral barriers to appropriate food portion size control. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 10, 92. The British Dietetic Association. (2007). Dietitians hail return of balanced diet plate. Birmingham: The British Dietetic Association. U.S. Department of Agriculture. (2011). ChooseMyPlate. Available from: http://www. choosemyplate.gov/index.html. Vermeer, W. M., Steenhuis, I. H. M., & Seidell, J. C. (2010). Portion size: A qualitative study of consumers' attitudes toward point-of-purchase interventions aimed at portion size. Health Education Research, 25, 109e120. Wansink, B., & van Ittersum, K. (2007). Portion size me: Downsizing our consumption norms. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 107, 1103e1106. Wrieden, W. L., & Momen, N. C. (2009). Workshop 3: Novel approaches for estimating portion sizes. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 63, S80eS81. Young, L. R., & Nestle, M. (1998). Variation in perceptions of a ‘medium’ food portion: Implications for dietary guidance. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 98, 458e459.",
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An evaluation of portion size estimation aids: Consumer perspectiveson their effectiveness. / Faulkner, Gemma P; Livingstone, M. Barbara E.; Pourshahidi, Kirsty; Spence, Michelle; Dean, Moira; O'Brien, Sinead; Gibney, Eileen; Wallace, Julie; McCaffrey, Tracy; Kerr, Maeve. A.

In: Appetite, Vol. 114, 20.03.2017, p. 200-208.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - An evaluation of portion size estimation aids: Consumer perspectiveson their effectiveness

AU - Faulkner, Gemma P

AU - Livingstone, M. Barbara E.

AU - Pourshahidi, Kirsty

AU - Spence, Michelle

AU - Dean, Moira

AU - O'Brien, Sinead

AU - Gibney, Eileen

AU - Wallace, Julie

AU - McCaffrey, Tracy

AU - Kerr, Maeve. A.

N1 - Compliant in UIR; evidence uploaded to 'Other files' Reference text: Anderson, A. S., Barton, K., Craigie, A., Freeman, J., Gregor, A., Stead, M., et al. (2008). Exploration of adult food portion size tools. Scotland: NHS Health Scotland Anderson, A. S., Freeman, J., Stead, M., Wrieden, W. L., & Barton, K. L. (2008). Consumer views on portion size guidance to assist adult dietary choices. Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics, 21, 375. Burger, K. S., Fisher, J. O., & Johnson, S. L. (2011). Mechanisms behind the portion size effect: Visibility and bite size. Obesity, 19, 546e551. Church, S. (2008). Trends in portion sizes in the UK e a preliminary review of published information. UK: Food Standards Agency. Condrasky, M., Ledikwe, J. H., Flood, J. E., & Rolls, B. J. (2007). Chefs' opinions of restaurant portion sizes. Obesity, 15, 2086e2094. Crabtree, B. F., & Miller, W. L. (1999). Using codes and code manuals: A template organizing style of interpretation. In B. F. Crabtree, & W. L. Miller (Eds.), Doing qualitative research (2nd ed.). Newbury Park, California: Sage. Daggett, L. M., & Rigdon, K. L. (2006). A computer-assisted instructional program for teaching portion size versus serving size. Journal of Community Health Nursing, 23, 29e35. Diliberti, N., Bordi, P. L., Conklin, M. T., Roe, L. S., & Rolls, B. J. (2004). Increased portion size leads to increased energy intake in a restaurant meal. Obesity Research, 12, 562e568. Elwood, P., & Longley, M. (2010). My health: Whose responsibility? A jury decides. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 64, 761e764. Faulkner, G. P., Kerr, M. A., Pourshahidi, K. P., Spence, M., Dean, M., O’Brien, S., et al. (2016). An evaluation of portion size estimation aids: Precision, ease of use and likelihood of future use. Public Health Nutrition, 19, 2377e2387. Faulkner, G. P., Pourshahidi, L. K., Wallace, J. M. W., Kerr, M. A., McCrorie, T. A., & Livingstone, M. B. E. (2012). Serving size guidance for consumers: Is it effective? Proceedings of the Nutrition Society, 71, 610e621. Flood, J. E., Roe, L. S., & Rolls, B. J. (2006). The effect of increased beverage portion size on energy intake at a meal. Journal of the American Dietetics Association, 106, 1984e1990. Flynn, M. A. T., O'Brien, C. M., Faulkner, G., Flynn, C. A., Gajownik, M., & Burke, S. J. (2012). Revision of food-based dietary guidelines for Ireland, phase 1: Evaluation of Ireland's food guide. Public Health Nutrition, 15, 518e526. Food Safety Authority of Ireland. (2011). Scientific recommendations for healthy eating in Ireland. Dublin: Food Safety Authority of Ireland. Food Safety Authority of Ireland. (2012). Healthy eating and active living for adults, teenagers and children over 5 years e a food guide for health professionals and catering services (Dublin: Ireland). Food Standards Agency. (2007). The Eatwell Plate. Available from: http://www.food. gov.uk/multimedia/pdfs/theeatwellplate.pdf. Geier, A. B., Rozin, P., & Doros, G. (2006). Unit bias - a new heuristic that helps explain the effect of portion size on food intake. Psychological Science, 17, 521e525. Health Canada. (2007). Eating well with Canada's food guide. Canada: Health Canada. Institute of Grocery Distribution. (2008). Portion size: A review of existing approaches. England: Institute of Grocery Distribution. Institute of Grocery Distribution. (2009). Portion size: Understanding the consumer perspective. England: Institute of Grocery Distribution. Jeffery, R. W., Rydell, S., Dunn, C. L., Harnack, L. J., Levine, A. S., Pentel, P. R., et al. (2007). Effects of portion size on chronic energy intake. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 4, 27. Kelly, M. T., Wallace, J. M. W., Robson, P. J., Rennie, K. L., Welch, R. W., Hannon- Fletcher, M. P., et al. (2009). Increased portion size leads to a sustained increase in energy intake over 4d in normal-weight and overweight men and women. British Journal of Nutrition, 102, 470e477. McCarthy, S., Robson, P., Livingstone, M., Kiely, M., Flynn, A., Cran, G. W., et al. (2006). Associations between daily food intake and excess adiposity in Irish adults: Towards the development of food-based dietary guidelines for reducing the prevalence of overweight and obesity. International Journal of Obesity, 30, 993e1002. National Health Service. (2003). 5 A DAY portion sizes. Available from: http://www. nhs.uk/Livewell/5ADAY/Pages/Portionsizes.aspx. Nielsen, S. J., & Popkin, B. M. (2003). Patterns and trends in food portion sizes, 1977- 1998. Journal of the American Medical Association, 289, 450e453. Poelman, M. P., Steenhuis, I. H. M., de Vet, E., & Seidell, J. C. (2013). The development and evaluation of an internet-based intervention to increase awareness about food portion sizes: A randomised control trial. Journal of Nutrition Education Behavior, 45(6), 701e707. Raynor, H. A., & Wing, R. R. (2007). Package unit size and amount of food: Do both influence intake? Obesity, 15, 2311e2319. Rolls, B. J., Roe, L. S., Kral, T. V. E., Meengs, J. S., & Wall, D. E. (2004). Increasing the portion size of a packaged snack increases energy intake in men and women. Appetite, 42, 63e69. Rolls, B. J., Roe, L. S., Meengs, J. S., & Wall, D. E. (2004). Increasing the portion size of a sandwich increases energy intake. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 104, 367e372. Rolls, B., Roe, L., & Meengs, J. (2006). Larger portion sizes lead to a sustained increase in energy intake over 2 days. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 106, 543e549. Smiciklas-Wright, H., Mitchell, D. C., Mickle, S. J., Goldman, J. D., & Cook, A. (2003). Foods commonly eaten in the United States, 1989-1991 and 1994-1996: Are portion sizes changing? Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 103, 41e47. Spence, M., Livingstone, M. B. E., Hollywood, L. E., Gibney, E. R., O’Brien, S. A., Pourshahidi, L. K., et al. (2013). A qualitative study of psychological, social and behavioral barriers to appropriate food portion size control. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 10, 92. The British Dietetic Association. (2007). Dietitians hail return of balanced diet plate. Birmingham: The British Dietetic Association. U.S. Department of Agriculture. (2011). ChooseMyPlate. Available from: http://www. choosemyplate.gov/index.html. Vermeer, W. M., Steenhuis, I. H. M., & Seidell, J. C. (2010). Portion size: A qualitative study of consumers' attitudes toward point-of-purchase interventions aimed at portion size. Health Education Research, 25, 109e120. Wansink, B., & van Ittersum, K. (2007). Portion size me: Downsizing our consumption norms. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 107, 1103e1106. Wrieden, W. L., & Momen, N. C. (2009). Workshop 3: Novel approaches for estimating portion sizes. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 63, S80eS81. Young, L. R., & Nestle, M. (1998). Variation in perceptions of a ‘medium’ food portion: Implications for dietary guidance. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 98, 458e459.

PY - 2017/3/20

Y1 - 2017/3/20

N2 - Objective: This qualitative study aimed to investigate consumer opinions on the usefulness of portion size estimation aids (PSEA); consumer preferences in terms of format and context for use; and the level of detail of guidance considered necessary for the effective application of PSEA.Design: Six focus groups (three to eight participants per group) were conducted to elicit views on PSEA. The discussions were recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed by two independent researchers using a template approach.Setting: The focus groups were conducted in 2013 by an experienced moderator in various sites across the island of Ireland (three in the Republic of Ireland and three in Northern Ireland) including local leisure, community and resource centres; the home environment; and a university meeting room. Participants: General population, males (n ¼ 17) and females (n ¼ 15) aged 18e64 years old. Participants were recruited from both urban and rural locations representing a range of socio-economic groups.Results: The majority of participants deemed the coloured portion pots and disposable plastic cup(household measures) to be useful particularly for the estimation of amorphous cereal products (e.g. breakfast cereals). Preferences were evident for “visual” PSEA (reference objects, household measures and food packaging) rather than ‘quantities and measures’ such as weighing in grams or ounces. Participants stated that PS education should be concise, consistent, from a reputable source, initiated at school age and communicated innovatively e.g. mobile app or TV advertisement. Guidance in relation to gender, age and activity level was favoured over a “one size fits all” approach.Conclusions: This study identified consumer preferences and acceptance of “visual” PSEA such as portion pots/cups to estimate appropriate PS of amorphous grain foods such as breakfast cereals, pasta and rice. Concise information from a reputable source in relation to gender, age and activity level should accompany PSEA.

AB - Objective: This qualitative study aimed to investigate consumer opinions on the usefulness of portion size estimation aids (PSEA); consumer preferences in terms of format and context for use; and the level of detail of guidance considered necessary for the effective application of PSEA.Design: Six focus groups (three to eight participants per group) were conducted to elicit views on PSEA. The discussions were recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed by two independent researchers using a template approach.Setting: The focus groups were conducted in 2013 by an experienced moderator in various sites across the island of Ireland (three in the Republic of Ireland and three in Northern Ireland) including local leisure, community and resource centres; the home environment; and a university meeting room. Participants: General population, males (n ¼ 17) and females (n ¼ 15) aged 18e64 years old. Participants were recruited from both urban and rural locations representing a range of socio-economic groups.Results: The majority of participants deemed the coloured portion pots and disposable plastic cup(household measures) to be useful particularly for the estimation of amorphous cereal products (e.g. breakfast cereals). Preferences were evident for “visual” PSEA (reference objects, household measures and food packaging) rather than ‘quantities and measures’ such as weighing in grams or ounces. Participants stated that PS education should be concise, consistent, from a reputable source, initiated at school age and communicated innovatively e.g. mobile app or TV advertisement. Guidance in relation to gender, age and activity level was favoured over a “one size fits all” approach.Conclusions: This study identified consumer preferences and acceptance of “visual” PSEA such as portion pots/cups to estimate appropriate PS of amorphous grain foods such as breakfast cereals, pasta and rice. Concise information from a reputable source in relation to gender, age and activity level should accompany PSEA.

KW - Portion size

KW - Obesity

KW - Consumer

KW - Energy intake

U2 - 10.1016/j.appet.2017.03.027

DO - 10.1016/j.appet.2017.03.027

M3 - Article

VL - 114

SP - 200

EP - 208

JO - Barriers and facilitators to cooking from ‘scratch’ using basic or raw ingredients: A qualitative interview study

T2 - Barriers and facilitators to cooking from ‘scratch’ using basic or raw ingredients: A qualitative interview study

JF - Barriers and facilitators to cooking from ‘scratch’ using basic or raw ingredients: A qualitative interview study

SN - 0195-6663

ER -