An especial skill in elite wheelchair basketball players

kelley Fay, Gavin Breslin, SH Czyz, Z Pizlo

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

11 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

We aimed to investigate whether an especial skill is present in elite wheelchair basketball players when taking twenty shots with a regular basketball from five different distances (11 ft, 13 ft, 17 ft, & 19 ft) from the basket including the free throw line (15 ft). Twelve elite male basketball players participated. The results showed that as distance increased shot accuracy decreased in line with force by variability predictions for the 11 ft, 13 ft, 17 ft, & 19 ft distances. However, shot performance at the free throw line where players are more familiar with practicing free throw shots did not follow this trend. A linear regression line was drawn to predict performance at the free throw line based on nearer (11 ft & 13 ft) and farer (17 ft & 19 ft) distances to the basket, this was then compared to actual performance. A significant difference between actual and predicted scores was found (p <.05) supporting the presence of an especial skill. Significant positive correlations were found for the 11 ft and 17 ft distance, age, years of playing, and accumulated practice hours with performance at the 15 ft line (p <.05). These correlations imply the operation of generalization in the especial skill. This observation received support from applying a model in which shot accuracy as a function of distance was approximated by two regression lines.
LanguageEnglish
JournalHuman Movement Science
Volume33
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 24 Aug 2013

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Basketball
Wheelchairs
Linear Models

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@article{c35e5d1c9ae14bc4972cce027b77d3ab,
title = "An especial skill in elite wheelchair basketball players",
abstract = "We aimed to investigate whether an especial skill is present in elite wheelchair basketball players when taking twenty shots with a regular basketball from five different distances (11 ft, 13 ft, 17 ft, & 19 ft) from the basket including the free throw line (15 ft). Twelve elite male basketball players participated. The results showed that as distance increased shot accuracy decreased in line with force by variability predictions for the 11 ft, 13 ft, 17 ft, & 19 ft distances. However, shot performance at the free throw line where players are more familiar with practicing free throw shots did not follow this trend. A linear regression line was drawn to predict performance at the free throw line based on nearer (11 ft & 13 ft) and farer (17 ft & 19 ft) distances to the basket, this was then compared to actual performance. A significant difference between actual and predicted scores was found (p <.05) supporting the presence of an especial skill. Significant positive correlations were found for the 11 ft and 17 ft distance, age, years of playing, and accumulated practice hours with performance at the 15 ft line (p <.05). These correlations imply the operation of generalization in the especial skill. This observation received support from applying a model in which shot accuracy as a function of distance was approximated by two regression lines.",
author = "kelley Fay and Gavin Breslin and SH Czyz and Z Pizlo",
note = "Reference text: Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy: The exercise of control. New York: WH Freeman. Breslin, G., Hodges, N. J., Kennedy, R., Hanlon, M., & Williams, A. M. (2010). An especial skill: Support for a learned parameters hypothesis. Acta Psychologica, 134, 55–60. Breslin, G., Hodges, N. J., Steenson, A., & Williams, A. M. (2012). Constant or variable practice: Recreating the especial skill effect. Acta Psychologica, 140, 154–157. Breslin, G., Schmidt, R., & Lee, T. (2012). Especial skills: Generality and specificity in motor learning. In A. M. Williams & N. J. Hodges (Eds.), Skill acquisition in sport, research theory and practice (2nd ed.. London: Routledge. Czyz, S. H., Breslin, G., Kwon, O., Mazur, M., Kobialka, K., & Pizlo, Z. (2013). Especial skill effect across age and performance level: the nature and degree of generalization. Journal of Motor Behavior. (in press). Ford, P. R., & Williams, M. (2008). The effect of participation in Gaelic football on the development of Irish professional soccer players. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 30, 709–722. Harle, S. K., & Vickers, J. N. (2001). Training quiet eye improves accuracy in the basketball free throw. The Sport Psychologist, 15, 289–305. International wheelchair basketball federation. (2011). <http://www.iwbf.org/index.php/fclassification#F5> Accessed 27.11.11. International wheelchair basketball federation. (2012). <http://www.iwbf.org/index.php/fclassification15> Accessed 20.04.12. Keetch, K. M., Schmidt, R. A., Lee, T. D., & Young, D. E. (2005). Especial skills: Their emergence with massive amounts of practice. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 31, 970–978. Keetch, K. M., Lee, T. D., & Schmidt, R. A. (2008). Especial skills: Specificity embedded within generality. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 30, 723–736. Kutner, M. H., Nachstheim, C. J., Neter, J., & Li, W. (2006). Applied linear statistical models (5th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Irwin. Malone, L. A., Gervais, P. L., & Steadward, R. D. (2002). Shooting mechanics related to player classification and free throw success in wheelchair basketball. Journal of Rehabilitation Research and Development, 39, 701–710. Mulavara, A. P., Cohen, H. S., & Bloomberg, J. J. (2009). Critical features of training that facilitate adaptive generalization of over ground locomotion. Gait & Posture, 29, 242–248. Poggio, T., & Bizzi, E. (2004). Generalization in vision and motor control. Nature, 43, 768–774. Proteau, L. (1992). On the specificity of learning and the role of visual information for movement control. In L. Proteau & D. Elliott (Eds.), Vision and motor control (pp. 67–103). Amsterdam: Elsevier. Schmidt, R. A. (1975). A schema theory of discrete motor skill learning. Psychological Review, 82, 225–260. Schmidt, R. A., Zelaznik, H. N., Hawkins, B., Frank, J. S., & Quinn, J. T. (1979). Motor-output variability: A theory for the accuracy of rapid motor acts. Psychological Review, 86, 415–451. Simons, J. P., Wilson, J., Wilson, G., & Theall, S. (2009). Challenges to cognitive bases for an especial motor skill at the regulation baseball pitching distance. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 80, 469–479. Welch, R. B., Bridgeman, B., Anand, S., & Browman, K. E. (1993). Alternating prism exposure causes dual adaptation and generalization to a novel displacement. Perception and Psychophysics, 54, 195–204. Wolpert, D. M., Ghahramani, Z., & Jordan, M. I. (1995). An internal model for sensorimotor integration. Science, 269(5232), 1880–1882. Wilson, M. R., Vine, S. J., & Wood, G. (2009). The influence of anxiety on visual attentional control. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 31, 152–168.",
year = "2013",
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language = "English",
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issn = "0167-9457",
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An especial skill in elite wheelchair basketball players. / Fay, kelley; Breslin, Gavin; Czyz, SH; Pizlo, Z.

In: Human Movement Science, Vol. 33, 24.08.2013.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - An especial skill in elite wheelchair basketball players

AU - Fay, kelley

AU - Breslin, Gavin

AU - Czyz, SH

AU - Pizlo, Z

N1 - Reference text: Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy: The exercise of control. New York: WH Freeman. Breslin, G., Hodges, N. J., Kennedy, R., Hanlon, M., & Williams, A. M. (2010). An especial skill: Support for a learned parameters hypothesis. Acta Psychologica, 134, 55–60. Breslin, G., Hodges, N. J., Steenson, A., & Williams, A. M. (2012). Constant or variable practice: Recreating the especial skill effect. Acta Psychologica, 140, 154–157. Breslin, G., Schmidt, R., & Lee, T. (2012). Especial skills: Generality and specificity in motor learning. In A. M. Williams & N. J. Hodges (Eds.), Skill acquisition in sport, research theory and practice (2nd ed.. London: Routledge. Czyz, S. H., Breslin, G., Kwon, O., Mazur, M., Kobialka, K., & Pizlo, Z. (2013). Especial skill effect across age and performance level: the nature and degree of generalization. Journal of Motor Behavior. (in press). Ford, P. R., & Williams, M. (2008). The effect of participation in Gaelic football on the development of Irish professional soccer players. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 30, 709–722. Harle, S. K., & Vickers, J. N. (2001). Training quiet eye improves accuracy in the basketball free throw. The Sport Psychologist, 15, 289–305. International wheelchair basketball federation. (2011). <http://www.iwbf.org/index.php/fclassification#F5> Accessed 27.11.11. International wheelchair basketball federation. (2012). <http://www.iwbf.org/index.php/fclassification15> Accessed 20.04.12. Keetch, K. M., Schmidt, R. A., Lee, T. D., & Young, D. E. (2005). Especial skills: Their emergence with massive amounts of practice. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 31, 970–978. Keetch, K. M., Lee, T. D., & Schmidt, R. A. (2008). Especial skills: Specificity embedded within generality. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 30, 723–736. Kutner, M. H., Nachstheim, C. J., Neter, J., & Li, W. (2006). Applied linear statistical models (5th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Irwin. Malone, L. A., Gervais, P. L., & Steadward, R. D. (2002). Shooting mechanics related to player classification and free throw success in wheelchair basketball. Journal of Rehabilitation Research and Development, 39, 701–710. Mulavara, A. P., Cohen, H. S., & Bloomberg, J. J. (2009). Critical features of training that facilitate adaptive generalization of over ground locomotion. Gait & Posture, 29, 242–248. Poggio, T., & Bizzi, E. (2004). Generalization in vision and motor control. Nature, 43, 768–774. Proteau, L. (1992). On the specificity of learning and the role of visual information for movement control. In L. Proteau & D. Elliott (Eds.), Vision and motor control (pp. 67–103). Amsterdam: Elsevier. Schmidt, R. A. (1975). A schema theory of discrete motor skill learning. Psychological Review, 82, 225–260. Schmidt, R. A., Zelaznik, H. N., Hawkins, B., Frank, J. S., & Quinn, J. T. (1979). Motor-output variability: A theory for the accuracy of rapid motor acts. Psychological Review, 86, 415–451. Simons, J. P., Wilson, J., Wilson, G., & Theall, S. (2009). Challenges to cognitive bases for an especial motor skill at the regulation baseball pitching distance. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 80, 469–479. Welch, R. B., Bridgeman, B., Anand, S., & Browman, K. E. (1993). Alternating prism exposure causes dual adaptation and generalization to a novel displacement. Perception and Psychophysics, 54, 195–204. Wolpert, D. M., Ghahramani, Z., & Jordan, M. I. (1995). An internal model for sensorimotor integration. Science, 269(5232), 1880–1882. Wilson, M. R., Vine, S. J., & Wood, G. (2009). The influence of anxiety on visual attentional control. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 31, 152–168.

PY - 2013/8/24

Y1 - 2013/8/24

N2 - We aimed to investigate whether an especial skill is present in elite wheelchair basketball players when taking twenty shots with a regular basketball from five different distances (11 ft, 13 ft, 17 ft, & 19 ft) from the basket including the free throw line (15 ft). Twelve elite male basketball players participated. The results showed that as distance increased shot accuracy decreased in line with force by variability predictions for the 11 ft, 13 ft, 17 ft, & 19 ft distances. However, shot performance at the free throw line where players are more familiar with practicing free throw shots did not follow this trend. A linear regression line was drawn to predict performance at the free throw line based on nearer (11 ft & 13 ft) and farer (17 ft & 19 ft) distances to the basket, this was then compared to actual performance. A significant difference between actual and predicted scores was found (p <.05) supporting the presence of an especial skill. Significant positive correlations were found for the 11 ft and 17 ft distance, age, years of playing, and accumulated practice hours with performance at the 15 ft line (p <.05). These correlations imply the operation of generalization in the especial skill. This observation received support from applying a model in which shot accuracy as a function of distance was approximated by two regression lines.

AB - We aimed to investigate whether an especial skill is present in elite wheelchair basketball players when taking twenty shots with a regular basketball from five different distances (11 ft, 13 ft, 17 ft, & 19 ft) from the basket including the free throw line (15 ft). Twelve elite male basketball players participated. The results showed that as distance increased shot accuracy decreased in line with force by variability predictions for the 11 ft, 13 ft, 17 ft, & 19 ft distances. However, shot performance at the free throw line where players are more familiar with practicing free throw shots did not follow this trend. A linear regression line was drawn to predict performance at the free throw line based on nearer (11 ft & 13 ft) and farer (17 ft & 19 ft) distances to the basket, this was then compared to actual performance. A significant difference between actual and predicted scores was found (p <.05) supporting the presence of an especial skill. Significant positive correlations were found for the 11 ft and 17 ft distance, age, years of playing, and accumulated practice hours with performance at the 15 ft line (p <.05). These correlations imply the operation of generalization in the especial skill. This observation received support from applying a model in which shot accuracy as a function of distance was approximated by two regression lines.

U2 - 10.1016/j.humov.2012.08.005

DO - 10.1016/j.humov.2012.08.005

M3 - Article

VL - 33

JO - Human Movement Science

T2 - Human Movement Science

JF - Human Movement Science

SN - 0167-9457

ER -