An Approach to an "Authentic Lebanese Architecture"

Nariz al Shanty Yassine, Jenny Russell

    Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

    Abstract

    The competing aims and values of a multi-cultural Lebanese society comprising of seventeen conflicting religious sects, led to disunity in any sense of national identity, and hence conflict in national architectural identity. This resulted in a polluted and biased canon of authentic "Leba-nese architecture" which presented this concept as dialectic and controversial between the con-flicting groups. Authentic architecture is the socio-cultural interaction that is focussed on the creation of a local identity (Niskasaari, 2008) that reflects social norms, values and beliefs. This paper inves-tigates if, despite a polluted canon, authenticity exists in Lebanese architectural styles. It will present an approach to define a new canon of authentic "Lebanese architecture" by investigating the opinions of the marginal cultures, as opposed to the views of the associate professions, in order to consider an unpoliticized view of architectural identity and to achieve an agreeable Le-banese style which may be sustained for future generations.
    LanguageEnglish
    Title of host publicationUnknown Host Publication
    Pages407-416
    Number of pages10
    Publication statusPublished - 21 Sep 2015
    EventSharing Cultures 2015: The 4th International Conference on Intangible Heritage - Lagos, Portugal
    Duration: 21 Sep 2015 → …

    Conference

    ConferenceSharing Cultures 2015: The 4th International Conference on Intangible Heritage
    Period21/09/15 → …

    Fingerprint

    Canon
    Multicultural Societies
    National Identity
    Future Generations
    Architectural Style
    Social Norms
    Disunity
    Dialectics
    Authenticity
    Religion
    Sect
    Local Identity
    Cultural Interaction

    Keywords

    • lebanese architecture
    • cultural identity
    • authenticity

    Cite this

    Yassine, N. A. S., & Russell, J. (2015). An Approach to an "Authentic Lebanese Architecture". In Unknown Host Publication (pp. 407-416)
    Yassine, Nariz al Shanty ; Russell, Jenny. / An Approach to an "Authentic Lebanese Architecture". Unknown Host Publication. 2015. pp. 407-416
    @inproceedings{bd7ff42af4ba4b7284b9cae89e02ccd3,
    title = "An Approach to an {"}Authentic Lebanese Architecture{"}",
    abstract = "The competing aims and values of a multi-cultural Lebanese society comprising of seventeen conflicting religious sects, led to disunity in any sense of national identity, and hence conflict in national architectural identity. This resulted in a polluted and biased canon of authentic {"}Leba-nese architecture{"} which presented this concept as dialectic and controversial between the con-flicting groups. Authentic architecture is the socio-cultural interaction that is focussed on the creation of a local identity (Niskasaari, 2008) that reflects social norms, values and beliefs. This paper inves-tigates if, despite a polluted canon, authenticity exists in Lebanese architectural styles. It will present an approach to define a new canon of authentic {"}Lebanese architecture{"} by investigating the opinions of the marginal cultures, as opposed to the views of the associate professions, in order to consider an unpoliticized view of architectural identity and to achieve an agreeable Le-banese style which may be sustained for future generations.",
    keywords = "lebanese architecture, cultural identity, authenticity",
    author = "Yassine, {Nariz al Shanty} and Jenny Russell",
    note = "Reference text: {"}UNESCO Universal Declaration on Cultural Diversity (2001) UNESCO Doc. 31C/Res 25, Annex, Uni-versity of Minnesota; Human rights library [Online], Available: http://www1.umn.edu/humanrts/instree/culturaldiversity.html; [25 Mars 2008]. Abel, C. (2000) Architecture & Identity: Responses to Cultural and Technological Change, second ed. Great Britain: Architectural press. Ahsan, M. (2007) Sense of Place Or Place of Sense: A Search for Context in Architecture, [Online], Available: http://www.fredhong.com/arch693/mujtaba_ahsan/Mujtaba_1(d).doc [29 January 2007]. Akalin, A., Yildirim, K., Wilson, C.and Kilicoglu, O. (2009) {"}Architecture and Engineering Students' Evaluations of House Facades: Preference, Complexity and Impressiveness,{"} Journal of Environmen-tal Psychology, no. 29, pp. 124- 132. Babbie, E., Halley, F. and Zaino, J. (2003) Adventures in Social Research: Data Analysis using SPSS 11,0/11,5 for Windows, 5th ed., Thousand Oaks, London, New Delhi: Sage Publications, Inc. Bhabha, H. K. (1994) The Location of Culture. London and New York: Routledge. Blaikie, N. (2003) Analyzing Quantitative Data. London, Thousand Oaks, New Delhi: SAGA Publica-tions. Broadbent, G. (1996) {"}A plain man's guide to the theory of signs in architecture,{"} in Nesbitt, K. (ed.) Theorizing a new agenda for architecture an anthology of architectural theory 1965-1995, London and New York: Library of congress. Busekist, A. V. (2004) {"}Uses and Misuses of the Concept of Identity,{"} Security Dialogue 35, no. 1, pp. 81-98. Castells, M. (2004) The Power of Identity, The Information Age, Economy, Society, and Culture, Volume II, 2nd ed. UK: Blackwell Ltd. Chan, C. S. (2000) {"}Can Style be measured?{"} Design Studies 21, no. 3, pp. 276-291. Chiotinis, N. (2006) {"}The Request of Sustainability and Architecture as Cultural Paradigm,” Manage-ment of Environmental Quality: An International Journal 17, no. 5, pp. 593- 598. Cousins, M. (2014) Defining authenticity, Oliver Chapman Architects, [Online], Available: http://www.oliverchapmanarchitects.com/our-­‐space/defining-­‐authenticity/ [ 2 May 2014]. D’Auria, A. J. (2001) {"}City Networks and Sustainability the Role of Knowledge and of Cultural Heritage in Globalization,” International Journal of Sustainability in Heritage Education 2, no. 1, pp. 38-47. Elnaser, J. (2003) {"}Style,{"} in Nelson, R. S. and Shiff, R. (eds.), Critical terms for art history, Chicago and London: Library of Congress Cataloging in. Fawcett, W., Ellingham, I. and Platt, S. (2008) {"}Reconciling the Architectural Preferences of Architects and The public: The Ordered Preference Mode,{"} Environment & Behavior, volume 40, no. 5, pp. 599- 618. Foddy, W. (1994) Constructing questions for interviews and questionnaires: theory and practice in so-cial research. UK: Cambridge, USA: New York, Australia: Melborn: Cambridge University Press. Friedman, J. (1994) Cultural Identity and Global Process, London, California, New Delhi: SAGE. Ghandour, M. (2002) {"}The Politics of Traditional Contemporary Buildings.{"} ACS International Confer-ence Oriental-Occidental: Geography, Identity, Space. Gjerde, M. (2013) Visual Aesthetic Perception and Judgment of Urban Streetscapes, [Online], Availa-ble: http://ua.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp/okabelab/yasami/CIB/10-SQ/924.pdf [19 May 2013]. Howard, P. (2003) Heritage Management, Interpretation, Identity, London: Continuum. Iskandar, A. (2001) La Dimension Syriaque Dans L'art et l'architecture Libanaise. Beirut: Kaslik universtiy press. Iskandar, A. J. (2013) Job History, [Online], Available: http://www.iskandar.com/amine/ [5 Octobre 2013]. Kfoury, S. (1999) Maisons Libanaise, Bierut : ALBA. Kuban, D. (1980) {"}Symbolism in its Regional and Contemporary Context,{"} in Katz, J. G. (ed.) Architec-ture as Symbol and Self-Identity, Philadelphia: Aga Khan Award for Architecture. Lauffray, J. (1985) {"}Reflexions sur l'architecture a propos d'une maison Lebanaise,{"} in Aboussouan, C. (ed.) L'Architecture Libanaise Du XV Au XIX Siecle, Beirut: Les cahiers des l'est. Legier-Belair, J. (2000) L'Habitation Au Liban [The dwelling in Lebanon], trans. Benabid N. and El-Khoury R.. Paris: Librairie Orientaliste Paul Geuthner, S.A. Lenartowicz, J. K. (2013) On Authenticity in Architecture in Terms of Posing Questions Academia.edu share research, [Online], Available: https://www.academia.edu/5545531/Lenartowicz_On_Authenticity_in_Architecture [2 May 2014]. Malhis, S. (2004) {"}Local Identity of Modern Amman-Jordan: A Perceptual approach Towards Identify-ing an Inter-Subjective and Shared Architectural Schemata,{"} Urban design International, no. 9, pp. 119-131. Marczyk, G., DeMatteo, D. and Festinger, D. (2005) Essentials of Research Design and Methodology. Hoboken, New Jersey, Canada: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Masri, G. A. (2006) Wound in the City, Scars in the Nation: Making Sense of Identity, Modernity, and Reconstructed Urban Space in Post Civil-War Beirut. Doctor of philosophy in geography, University of California. Massad, J. A. (2005) {"}Beginning with Edward Said,{"} in Ballouta, K. (ed.) Belonging and globalization Critical Essays in Contemporary Art & Culture, London, San Francisco, Beirut: SAQI. Mira, R. G., Cameselle, J. M. S. and Martinez. J. R. (2003) Culture, Environmental Action and Sustaina-bility. USA: Hogrefe & Huber. Nasar, J. (1983) {"}Adult Viewers’ Preferences in Residential Scenes: A Study of the Relationship of Envi-ronmental Attributes to Preference,{"} Environment and Behavior, no.15, pp. 589-614. Nishimura, R. (2014) SW Oregon Architect, Architecture and urban design in Oregon's southern Wil-lamette Valley, “Authenticity,” [Online], Available: http://sworegonarchitect.blogspot.com/2008/05/authenticity.html#.U2Tkz82k Nst [2, May 2014]. Niskasaari, K. (2008) “Towards a Socio-culturally Sustainable Definition of Authenticity: Re-thinking the Spirit of Place,” Paper presented in: 16th ICOMOS General Assembly and International Sympo-sium, Finding the spirit of place – between the tangible and the intangible, Quebec, Canada. Oliver, P. (1998) Encyclopedia of Vernacular Architecture of the World, Volume 4, no. 1, United King-dom: The press Syndicate of the University of Cambridge. Osgood, C. E., Suci, G. J. and Tannenenbaun, P. H. (1957) The measurment of meaning. Urbana: Uni-versity of Illinois Press. Patton, M. Q. (2002) Qualitative Research & Evaluation Methods, 3rd ed. Thousand Oaks, London, New Delhi: SAGA Publications. Ragette, F. (2006) Traditional Domestic Architecture of the Arab Region,2nd ed. China: American Uni-verstity of Sharjah. Rapoport, A. (2008) {"} Some further Thoughts on Cultures and Environment,{"} International Journal of Architectural Research, volume 2, no. 1, pp. 16- 39. Rossi, A. (1988) The Architecture of the City, Fourth printing ed. Cambridge, Massachusetts, and Lon-don, England: The MIT Press. Rudofsky, B. (1964) Architecture without architects: A Short Introduction to Non-Pedigreed Archi-tecture, U.S.A.: Museum of Modern Art, New York. Said, E. W. (1993) Culture and imperialism, London: Chatto & Widus. Saliba, R. (1998) Beirut 1920-1940 Domestic Architecture between Traditional and Modernity. Beirut, Lebanon: The order of Engineers and Architects. Sarup, M. (1996) Identity, culture and the modern world, Edinburgh, Great Britain: Edinburgh Universi-ty Press Ltd. Soon, T. K. (2006) Case Study 3- Singapore Cultural Identity in Architecture as Perceived from a Sin-gapore Viewpoint, [Online], Available: http://www.rubanisation.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=121:cultural-identity-in-architecture-as-perceived-from-a-singapore-viewpoint&catid=40:articles&Itemid=56 [26 October 2006]. Wiegand, K. E. (1997) Religious, Ancestral, and National Identity: Political Use and Abuse in Lebanon. Master in art in International Affairs, American University of Beirut. Wikipedia, t. f. e. (2014) authenticity, [Online], Available: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Authenticity_(philosophy) [2 May 2014]. Wikipedia, t. f. e. (2014) Christian Norberg-Schulz, [Online], Available: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Christian_Norberg-Schulz [26 August 2013]. Yin, R. K. (2003) Case study researchThousand. Oaks, London, New Delhi: SAGE Publications.",
    year = "2015",
    month = "9",
    day = "21",
    language = "English",
    isbn = "978-989-8734-08-2",
    pages = "407--416",
    booktitle = "Unknown Host Publication",

    }

    Yassine, NAS & Russell, J 2015, An Approach to an "Authentic Lebanese Architecture". in Unknown Host Publication. pp. 407-416, Sharing Cultures 2015: The 4th International Conference on Intangible Heritage, 21/09/15.

    An Approach to an "Authentic Lebanese Architecture". / Yassine, Nariz al Shanty; Russell, Jenny.

    Unknown Host Publication. 2015. p. 407-416.

    Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

    TY - GEN

    T1 - An Approach to an "Authentic Lebanese Architecture"

    AU - Yassine, Nariz al Shanty

    AU - Russell, Jenny

    N1 - Reference text: "UNESCO Universal Declaration on Cultural Diversity (2001) UNESCO Doc. 31C/Res 25, Annex, Uni-versity of Minnesota; Human rights library [Online], Available: http://www1.umn.edu/humanrts/instree/culturaldiversity.html; [25 Mars 2008]. Abel, C. (2000) Architecture & Identity: Responses to Cultural and Technological Change, second ed. Great Britain: Architectural press. Ahsan, M. (2007) Sense of Place Or Place of Sense: A Search for Context in Architecture, [Online], Available: http://www.fredhong.com/arch693/mujtaba_ahsan/Mujtaba_1(d).doc [29 January 2007]. Akalin, A., Yildirim, K., Wilson, C.and Kilicoglu, O. (2009) "Architecture and Engineering Students' Evaluations of House Facades: Preference, Complexity and Impressiveness," Journal of Environmen-tal Psychology, no. 29, pp. 124- 132. Babbie, E., Halley, F. and Zaino, J. (2003) Adventures in Social Research: Data Analysis using SPSS 11,0/11,5 for Windows, 5th ed., Thousand Oaks, London, New Delhi: Sage Publications, Inc. Bhabha, H. K. (1994) The Location of Culture. London and New York: Routledge. Blaikie, N. (2003) Analyzing Quantitative Data. London, Thousand Oaks, New Delhi: SAGA Publica-tions. Broadbent, G. (1996) "A plain man's guide to the theory of signs in architecture," in Nesbitt, K. (ed.) Theorizing a new agenda for architecture an anthology of architectural theory 1965-1995, London and New York: Library of congress. Busekist, A. V. (2004) "Uses and Misuses of the Concept of Identity," Security Dialogue 35, no. 1, pp. 81-98. Castells, M. (2004) The Power of Identity, The Information Age, Economy, Society, and Culture, Volume II, 2nd ed. UK: Blackwell Ltd. Chan, C. S. (2000) "Can Style be measured?" Design Studies 21, no. 3, pp. 276-291. Chiotinis, N. (2006) "The Request of Sustainability and Architecture as Cultural Paradigm,” Manage-ment of Environmental Quality: An International Journal 17, no. 5, pp. 593- 598. Cousins, M. (2014) Defining authenticity, Oliver Chapman Architects, [Online], Available: http://www.oliverchapmanarchitects.com/our-­‐space/defining-­‐authenticity/ [ 2 May 2014]. D’Auria, A. J. (2001) "City Networks and Sustainability the Role of Knowledge and of Cultural Heritage in Globalization,” International Journal of Sustainability in Heritage Education 2, no. 1, pp. 38-47. Elnaser, J. (2003) "Style," in Nelson, R. S. and Shiff, R. (eds.), Critical terms for art history, Chicago and London: Library of Congress Cataloging in. Fawcett, W., Ellingham, I. and Platt, S. (2008) "Reconciling the Architectural Preferences of Architects and The public: The Ordered Preference Mode," Environment & Behavior, volume 40, no. 5, pp. 599- 618. Foddy, W. (1994) Constructing questions for interviews and questionnaires: theory and practice in so-cial research. UK: Cambridge, USA: New York, Australia: Melborn: Cambridge University Press. Friedman, J. (1994) Cultural Identity and Global Process, London, California, New Delhi: SAGE. Ghandour, M. (2002) "The Politics of Traditional Contemporary Buildings." ACS International Confer-ence Oriental-Occidental: Geography, Identity, Space. Gjerde, M. (2013) Visual Aesthetic Perception and Judgment of Urban Streetscapes, [Online], Availa-ble: http://ua.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp/okabelab/yasami/CIB/10-SQ/924.pdf [19 May 2013]. Howard, P. (2003) Heritage Management, Interpretation, Identity, London: Continuum. Iskandar, A. (2001) La Dimension Syriaque Dans L'art et l'architecture Libanaise. Beirut: Kaslik universtiy press. Iskandar, A. J. (2013) Job History, [Online], Available: http://www.iskandar.com/amine/ [5 Octobre 2013]. Kfoury, S. (1999) Maisons Libanaise, Bierut : ALBA. Kuban, D. (1980) "Symbolism in its Regional and Contemporary Context," in Katz, J. G. (ed.) Architec-ture as Symbol and Self-Identity, Philadelphia: Aga Khan Award for Architecture. Lauffray, J. (1985) "Reflexions sur l'architecture a propos d'une maison Lebanaise," in Aboussouan, C. (ed.) L'Architecture Libanaise Du XV Au XIX Siecle, Beirut: Les cahiers des l'est. Legier-Belair, J. (2000) L'Habitation Au Liban [The dwelling in Lebanon], trans. Benabid N. and El-Khoury R.. Paris: Librairie Orientaliste Paul Geuthner, S.A. Lenartowicz, J. K. (2013) On Authenticity in Architecture in Terms of Posing Questions Academia.edu share research, [Online], Available: https://www.academia.edu/5545531/Lenartowicz_On_Authenticity_in_Architecture [2 May 2014]. Malhis, S. (2004) "Local Identity of Modern Amman-Jordan: A Perceptual approach Towards Identify-ing an Inter-Subjective and Shared Architectural Schemata," Urban design International, no. 9, pp. 119-131. Marczyk, G., DeMatteo, D. and Festinger, D. (2005) Essentials of Research Design and Methodology. Hoboken, New Jersey, Canada: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Masri, G. A. (2006) Wound in the City, Scars in the Nation: Making Sense of Identity, Modernity, and Reconstructed Urban Space in Post Civil-War Beirut. Doctor of philosophy in geography, University of California. Massad, J. A. (2005) "Beginning with Edward Said," in Ballouta, K. (ed.) Belonging and globalization Critical Essays in Contemporary Art & Culture, London, San Francisco, Beirut: SAQI. Mira, R. G., Cameselle, J. M. S. and Martinez. J. R. (2003) Culture, Environmental Action and Sustaina-bility. USA: Hogrefe & Huber. Nasar, J. (1983) "Adult Viewers’ Preferences in Residential Scenes: A Study of the Relationship of Envi-ronmental Attributes to Preference," Environment and Behavior, no.15, pp. 589-614. Nishimura, R. (2014) SW Oregon Architect, Architecture and urban design in Oregon's southern Wil-lamette Valley, “Authenticity,” [Online], Available: http://sworegonarchitect.blogspot.com/2008/05/authenticity.html#.U2Tkz82k Nst [2, May 2014]. Niskasaari, K. (2008) “Towards a Socio-culturally Sustainable Definition of Authenticity: Re-thinking the Spirit of Place,” Paper presented in: 16th ICOMOS General Assembly and International Sympo-sium, Finding the spirit of place – between the tangible and the intangible, Quebec, Canada. Oliver, P. (1998) Encyclopedia of Vernacular Architecture of the World, Volume 4, no. 1, United King-dom: The press Syndicate of the University of Cambridge. Osgood, C. E., Suci, G. J. and Tannenenbaun, P. H. (1957) The measurment of meaning. Urbana: Uni-versity of Illinois Press. Patton, M. Q. (2002) Qualitative Research & Evaluation Methods, 3rd ed. Thousand Oaks, London, New Delhi: SAGA Publications. Ragette, F. (2006) Traditional Domestic Architecture of the Arab Region,2nd ed. China: American Uni-verstity of Sharjah. Rapoport, A. (2008) " Some further Thoughts on Cultures and Environment," International Journal of Architectural Research, volume 2, no. 1, pp. 16- 39. Rossi, A. (1988) The Architecture of the City, Fourth printing ed. Cambridge, Massachusetts, and Lon-don, England: The MIT Press. Rudofsky, B. (1964) Architecture without architects: A Short Introduction to Non-Pedigreed Archi-tecture, U.S.A.: Museum of Modern Art, New York. Said, E. W. (1993) Culture and imperialism, London: Chatto & Widus. Saliba, R. (1998) Beirut 1920-1940 Domestic Architecture between Traditional and Modernity. Beirut, Lebanon: The order of Engineers and Architects. Sarup, M. (1996) Identity, culture and the modern world, Edinburgh, Great Britain: Edinburgh Universi-ty Press Ltd. Soon, T. K. (2006) Case Study 3- Singapore Cultural Identity in Architecture as Perceived from a Sin-gapore Viewpoint, [Online], Available: http://www.rubanisation.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=121:cultural-identity-in-architecture-as-perceived-from-a-singapore-viewpoint&catid=40:articles&Itemid=56 [26 October 2006]. Wiegand, K. E. (1997) Religious, Ancestral, and National Identity: Political Use and Abuse in Lebanon. Master in art in International Affairs, American University of Beirut. Wikipedia, t. f. e. (2014) authenticity, [Online], Available: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Authenticity_(philosophy) [2 May 2014]. Wikipedia, t. f. e. (2014) Christian Norberg-Schulz, [Online], Available: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Christian_Norberg-Schulz [26 August 2013]. Yin, R. K. (2003) Case study researchThousand. Oaks, London, New Delhi: SAGE Publications.

    PY - 2015/9/21

    Y1 - 2015/9/21

    N2 - The competing aims and values of a multi-cultural Lebanese society comprising of seventeen conflicting religious sects, led to disunity in any sense of national identity, and hence conflict in national architectural identity. This resulted in a polluted and biased canon of authentic "Leba-nese architecture" which presented this concept as dialectic and controversial between the con-flicting groups. Authentic architecture is the socio-cultural interaction that is focussed on the creation of a local identity (Niskasaari, 2008) that reflects social norms, values and beliefs. This paper inves-tigates if, despite a polluted canon, authenticity exists in Lebanese architectural styles. It will present an approach to define a new canon of authentic "Lebanese architecture" by investigating the opinions of the marginal cultures, as opposed to the views of the associate professions, in order to consider an unpoliticized view of architectural identity and to achieve an agreeable Le-banese style which may be sustained for future generations.

    AB - The competing aims and values of a multi-cultural Lebanese society comprising of seventeen conflicting religious sects, led to disunity in any sense of national identity, and hence conflict in national architectural identity. This resulted in a polluted and biased canon of authentic "Leba-nese architecture" which presented this concept as dialectic and controversial between the con-flicting groups. Authentic architecture is the socio-cultural interaction that is focussed on the creation of a local identity (Niskasaari, 2008) that reflects social norms, values and beliefs. This paper inves-tigates if, despite a polluted canon, authenticity exists in Lebanese architectural styles. It will present an approach to define a new canon of authentic "Lebanese architecture" by investigating the opinions of the marginal cultures, as opposed to the views of the associate professions, in order to consider an unpoliticized view of architectural identity and to achieve an agreeable Le-banese style which may be sustained for future generations.

    KW - lebanese architecture

    KW - cultural identity

    KW - authenticity

    M3 - Conference contribution

    SN - 978-989-8734-08-2

    SP - 407

    EP - 416

    BT - Unknown Host Publication

    ER -

    Yassine NAS, Russell J. An Approach to an "Authentic Lebanese Architecture". In Unknown Host Publication. 2015. p. 407-416