Alkali-Activated Natural Pozzolan Concrete as New Construction Material

Dali Bondar

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

28 Citations (Scopus)


In the near future, geopolymers or alkali-activated cementitious materials will be used as new high-performance construction materials of low environmental impact with a reasonable cost. This material is a good candidate to partially replace ordinary portland cement (OPC) in concrete as a major construction material that plays an outstanding role in the construction industry of different structures. Geopolymer materials are inorganic polymers based on alumina and silica units; they are synthesized from a wide range of dehydroxylated alumina-silicate powders condensed with alkaline silicate in a highly alkaline environment. Geopolymeric materials can be produced from a wide range of alumina-silica, including natural products--such as natural pozzolan and metakaolin--or coproducts--such as fly ash (coal and lignite), oil fuel ash, blast furnace or steel slag, and silica fume--and provide a route toward sustainable development. Using lesser amounts of calcium-based raw materials, lower manufacturing temperature, and lower amounts of fuel result in reduced carbon emissions for geopolymer cement manufacture up to 22 to 72% in comparison with portland cement. A study has been done by the authors to investigate the intrinsic nature of different types of Iranian natural pozzolans to determine the activators and methods that could be used to produce a geopolymer concrete based on alkali-activated natural pozzolan (AANP) and optimize mixture design. The mechanical behavior and durability of these types of geopolymer concrete were investigated and compared with normal OPC concrete mixtures cast by the authors and also reported in the literature. This paper summarizes the main conclusions of the research regarding pozzolanic activity, activator properties, engineering and durability properties, applications and evaluation of carbon footprint, and cost for AANP concrete.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)331-337
Number of pages7
JournalMaterials Journal
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished (in print/issue) - 31 May 2013


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