Alcohol consumption among university students: a typology of consumption to aid the tailoring of effective public health policy

Martin Davoren, Mary Cronin, Ivan J Perry, Karl O'Connor

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

8 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

ABSTRACT Objective: Elevated levels of alcohol consumption among university students are well documented. Policymakers have attempted to combat this issue at a university, national and international level. Tailoring public health policy to effectively tackle alcohol use is crucial. Using Q-methodology, the current study aims to develop a typology of alcohol consumption in the Irish university student population. Setting: A large Irish university. Participants: Hundreds of possible statements on types of consumption were generated from a systematic review and a set of one-on-one interviews. These were reduced to 36 statements, 6 statements which define each of the 6 previously defined consumption types. Participants were advised to scan through the 36 statements and fill the statements into a ‘forced choice, standardised distribution’. Following this, a 45–90min interview was conducted with students to illuminate subjectivity surrounding alcohol consumption. Analysis was conducted using PQ Method and NVivo software. Principal component analysis, followed by varimax rotation, was conducted to uncover the final factor information. Results: In total, 43 students completed the Q-study: 19 men and 24 women. A typology describing 4 distinct groupings of alcohol consumer was uncovered: the guarded drinker, the calculated hedonist, the peerinfluenced drinker and the inevitable binger. Factor loadings of each of the consumer groupings were noted for type description. Conclusions: This is the first study to propose ideal types of alcohol consumption among a university student population. Further research is required to investigate the degree to which each of these ideal types is subscribed. However, this typology, in addition to informing public policy and strategies, will be a valuable analytic tool in future research.
LanguageEnglish
Number of pages10
JournalBMJ Open
Volume6
Issue number11
Early online date1 Nov 2016
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 15 Nov 2016

Fingerprint

Public Policy
Health Policy
Alcohol Drinking
Public Health
Students
Alcohols
Interviews
Principal Component Analysis
Population
Software
Research

Keywords

  • Q Methodology
  • Alcohol
  • Youth
  • Drug
  • health
  • policy

Cite this

@article{037730e3e72843988e3e5eda61d88584,
title = "Alcohol consumption among university students: a typology of consumption to aid the tailoring of effective public health policy",
abstract = "ABSTRACT Objective: Elevated levels of alcohol consumption among university students are well documented. Policymakers have attempted to combat this issue at a university, national and international level. Tailoring public health policy to effectively tackle alcohol use is crucial. Using Q-methodology, the current study aims to develop a typology of alcohol consumption in the Irish university student population. Setting: A large Irish university. Participants: Hundreds of possible statements on types of consumption were generated from a systematic review and a set of one-on-one interviews. These were reduced to 36 statements, 6 statements which define each of the 6 previously defined consumption types. Participants were advised to scan through the 36 statements and fill the statements into a ‘forced choice, standardised distribution’. Following this, a 45–90min interview was conducted with students to illuminate subjectivity surrounding alcohol consumption. Analysis was conducted using PQ Method and NVivo software. Principal component analysis, followed by varimax rotation, was conducted to uncover the final factor information. Results: In total, 43 students completed the Q-study: 19 men and 24 women. A typology describing 4 distinct groupings of alcohol consumer was uncovered: the guarded drinker, the calculated hedonist, the peerinfluenced drinker and the inevitable binger. Factor loadings of each of the consumer groupings were noted for type description. Conclusions: This is the first study to propose ideal types of alcohol consumption among a university student population. Further research is required to investigate the degree to which each of these ideal types is subscribed. However, this typology, in addition to informing public policy and strategies, will be a valuable analytic tool in future research.",
keywords = "Q Methodology, Alcohol, Youth, Drug, health, policy",
author = "Martin Davoren and Mary Cronin and Perry, {Ivan J} and Karl O'Connor",
note = "Reference text: References 1.↵ Tosevski DL, Milovancevic MP, Gajic SD . Personality and psychopathology of university students. Curr Opin Psychiatry 2010;23:48. doi:10.1097/YCO.0b013e328333d625 [CrossRef][Medline]Google Scholar 2.↵ Carey KB, Scott-Sheldon LA, Carey MP, et al . Individual-level interventions to reduce college student drinking: a meta-analytic review. Addict Behav 2007;32:2469–94. doi:10.1016/j.addbeh.2007.05.004 [CrossRef][Medline][Web of Science]Google Scholar 3.↵ Murphy F, Murphy M . The use of social marketing messages to reduce binge drinking among Irish third level female students: Academic Public Administration Studies Archive-APAS. 2010. Google Scholar 4.↵ McCabe SE . Gender differences in collegiate risk factors for heavy episodic drinking. J Stud Alcohol 2002;63:49. [Medline]Google Scholar 5.↵ Wicki M, Kuntsche E, Gmel G . Drinking at European universities? A review of students’ alcohol use. Addict Behav 2010;35:913–24. doi:10.1016/j.addbeh.2010.06.015 [CrossRef][Medline][Web of Science]Google Scholar 6.↵ Davoren MP, Shiely F, Byrne M, et al . Hazardous alcohol consumption among university students in Ireland: a cross-sectional study. BMJ Open 2015;5:e006045. doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2014-006045 [Abstract/FREE Full text] 7.↵ Davoren MP, Demant J, Shiely F, et al . Alcohol consumption among university students in Ireland and the United Kingdom from 2002 to 2014: a systematic review. BMC Public Health 2016;16:1–13. doi:10.1186/s12889-016-2843-1 [Medline]Google Scholar 8.↵ Alcohol Working Group. Cardiff and Vale of Glamorgan Alcohol Working Group Action Plan: 2013–2016. 2013. 9.↵ Eurocare: European Alcohol Policy Alliane. Eurocare response to structure for EU Alcohol Action Plan: Belgium. 2014. 10.↵ NUS Alcohol Impact. NUS alcohol impact: about. Secondary NUS Alcohol Impact : About, 2015. 11.↵ Purdue University. Student affairs dashboard. Purdue University, 2012. 12.↵ Eriksson {\AA}, Tengstr{\"o}m A, Hodgins S . Typologies of alcohol use disorders among men with schizophrenic disorders. Addict Behav 2007;32:1146–63. doi:10.1016/j.addbeh.2006.08.003 [Medline]Google Scholar 13.↵ Cleveland MJ, Mallett KA, White HR, et al . Patterns of alcohol use and related consequences in non-college-attending emerging adults. J Stud Alcohol 2012;74:84. doi:10.15288/jsad.2013.74.84 Google Scholar 14.↵ Comasco E, Berglund K, Oreland L, et al . Why do adolescents drink? Motivational patterns related to alcohol consumption and alcohol-related problems. Subst Use Misuse 2010;45:1589–604. doi:10.3109/10826081003690159 [Medline]Google Scholar 15.↵ Craigs CL, Bewick BM, Gill J, et al . UK student alcohol consumption: a cluster analysis of drinking behaviour typologies. Health Educ J 2012;71:516–26. doi:10.1177/0017896911406967 [Abstract/FREE Full text] 16.↵ Davoren MP, Cronin M, Perry IJ, et al . A typology of alcohol consumption among young people–a narrative synthesis. Addict Res Theory 2015:1–13. Google Scholar 17.↵ Thomas DM, Watson RT . Q-sorting and MIS research: a primer. Commun Assoc Inform Syst 2002;8:141–56. Google Scholar 18.↵ Katz DL . Facing the facelessness of public health: what's the public got to do with it? Am J Health Promot 2011;25:361–2. doi:10.4278/ajhp.101103-CIT-359 [FREE Full text] 19.↵ Akhtar-Danesh N, Dehghan M, Morrison KM, et al . Parents’ perceptions and attitudes on childhood obesity: a Q-methodology study. J Am Acad Nurse Pract 2011;23:67–75. doi:10.1111/j.1745-7599.2010.00584.x [CrossRef][Medline]Google Scholar 20.↵ Davis CH, Michelle C . Q methodology in audience research: bridging the qualitative/quantitative ‘divide’? Journal of Audience and Reception Studies 2011;8:559–93.doi:10.1177/0017896911406967 Google Scholar 21.↵ Brown SR . A primer on Q methodology. Operant Subjectivity 1993;16:91–138. Google Scholar 22.↵ Van Exel J, de Graaf G . Q methodology: a sneak preview. Online document. 2005. http://wwwqmethodologynet/PDF/Q-methodology 23.↵ Watts S, Stenner P . Doing Q methodological research: theory, method & interpretation. Sage, 2012. Google Scholar 24.↵ Shabila NP, Al-Tawil NG, Al-Hadithi TS, et al . Using Q-methodology to explore people's health seeking behavior and perception of the quality of primary care services. BMC Public Health 2014;14:2. doi:10.1186/1471-2458-14-2 Google Scholar 25.↵ Babor TF, Higgins-Biddle JC, Saunders JB, et al . The alcohol use disorders identification test: guidelines for use in primary care. In: Dependence DoMHaS, ed. 2nd edn. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization, 2001:17. Google Scholar 26.↵ Haug S, Ulbricht S, Hanke M, et al . Overestimation of drinking norms and its association with alcohol consumption in apprentices. Alcohol Alcohol 2011;46:204–9. doi:10.1093/alcalc/agq103 [Abstract/FREE Full text] 27.↵ Kelly TM, Donovan JE, Chung T, et al . Brief screens for detecting alcohol use disorder among 18–20-year-old young adults in emergency departments: comparing AUDIT-C, CRAFFT, RAPS4-QF, FAST, RUFT-Cut, and DSM-IV 2-Item Scale. Addict Behav 2009;34:668–74. doi:10.1016/j.addbeh.2009.03.038 [CrossRef][Medline][Web of Science]Google Scholar 28.↵ Barry J, Proops J . Seeking sustainability discourses with Q methodology. Ecol Econ 1999;28:337–45. doi:10.1016/S0921-8009(98)00053-6 Google Scholar 29.↵ Barry J, Proops JLR . Citizenship, sustainability and environmental research: Q methodology and local exchange trading systems. Edward Elgar Pub, 2000. Google Scholar 30.↵ Webler T, Danielson S, Tuler S . Using Q method to reveal social perspectives in environmental research. SERI Rep 2009:09. Google Scholar 31.↵ Elo S, Kyng{\"a}s H . The qualitative content analysis process. J Adv Nurs 2008;62:107–15. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2648.2007.04569.x [CrossRef][Medline][Web of Science]Google Scholar 32.↵ Chiauzzi E, Dasmahapatra P, Black RA . Risk behaviors and drug use: a latent class analysis of heavy episodic drinking in first-year college students. Psychol Addict Behav 2013;27: 974–85. doi:10.1037/a0031570 [CrossRef][Medline]Google Scholar 33.↵ Hope A, Dring C, Dring J . College lifestyle and attitudinal national (CLAN) survey. The health of Irish students, health service executive, Health Promotion Unit, Department of Health and Children, Dublin. 2005. Google Scholar 34.↵ Kypri K, Cronin M, Wright CS . Do university students drink more hazardously than their non-student peers? Addiction 2005;100(5):713–14. doi:10.1111/j.1360-0443.2005.01116.x [CrossRef][Medline][Web of Science]Google Scholar 35.↵ Kypri K, Paschall MJ, Langley J, et al . Drinking and alcohol-related harm among New Zealand University students: findings from a national web-based survey. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2009;33(2):307–14. doi:10.1111/j.1530-0277.2008.00834.x [CrossRef][Medline][Web of Science]Google Scholar 36.↵ McCarthy T . Campus initiatives and student consumption of alcohol at University College Cork 2009–2010: improving student health. University College Cork, 2010. Google Scholar 37.↵ World Health Organisation. Adolescence: a unique time requiring a tailored response. Secondary Adolescence: a unique time requiring a tailored response. 2013. http://www.euro.who.int/en/health-topics/disease-prevention/alcohol-use/news/news/2013/02/adolescence-a-unique-time-requiring-a-tailored-response 38.↵ Anderson P, Chisholm D, Fuhr DC . Effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of policies and programmes to reduce the harm caused by alcohol. Lancet 2009;373:2234–46. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(09)60744-3 [CrossRef][Medline][Web of Science]Google Scholar 39.↵ Babor TF, Caetano R . Evidence-based alcohol policy in the Americas: strengths, weaknesses, and future challenges. Rev Panam Salud Publica 2005;18:327–37. doi:10.1590/S1020-49892005000900013 [Medline]Google Scholar 40.↵ Winograd RP, Steinley D, Sher K . Searching for Mr. Hyde: a five-factor approach to characterizing “types of drunks”. Addict Res Theory 2016;24:1–8. doi:10.3109/16066359.2015.1029920 Google Scholar 41.↵ Parker H . Pathology or modernity? Rethinking risk factor analyses of young drug users. Addict Res Theory 2003;11:141–4. doi:10.1080/160663502100021692 Google Scholar 42.↵ Alcohol Action Ireland. Low-risk guidelines. Secondary low-risk guidelines. 2016. http://alcoholireland.ie/alcohol-and-you/guidelines/ 43.↵ Measham F . Play space: historical and socio-cultural reflections on drugs, licensed leisure locations, commercialisation and control. Int J Drug Policy 2004;15:337–45. doi:10.1016/j.drugpo.2004.08.002 Google Scholar 44.↵ Szmigin I, Griffin C, Mistral W, et al . Reframing “binge drinking” as “calculated hedonism” empirical evidence from the UK. Int J Drug Policy 2008;19:359–66. doi:10.1016/j.drugpo.2007.08.009 [CrossRef][Medline][Web of Science]Google Scholar 45.↵ Demant J, T{\"o}rr{\"o}nen J . Changing drinking styles in Denmark and Finland. Fragmentation of male and female drinking among young adults. Subst Use Misuse 2011;46:1244–55. doi:10.3109/10826084.2011.569965 [CrossRef][Medline][Web of Science]Google Scholar 46.↵ Mathijssen J, Janssen M, van Bon-Martens M, et al . Adolescents and alcohol: an explorative audience segmentation analysis. BMC Public Health 2012;12:742. doi:10.1186/1471-2458-12-742 [Medline]Google Scholar 47.↵ Reboussin BA, Song EY, Shrestha A, et al . A latent class analysis of underage problem drinking: evidence from a community sample of 16−20-year-olds. Drug Alcohol Depend 2006;83:199. doi:10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2005.11.013 [CrossRef][Medline][Web of Science]Google Scholar 48.↵ Steinhausen HC, Metzke CW . The validity of adolescent types of alcohol use. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 2003;44:677–86. doi:10.1111/1469-7610.00154 [CrossRef][Medline]Google Scholar 49.↵ Stewart C, Power TG . Identifying patterns of adolescent drinking: a tri-ethnic study. J Stud Alcohol 2002;63:156. doi:10.15288/jsa.2002.63.156 [Medline][Web of Science]Google Scholar 50.↵ Morrison V, Bennett P . An introduction to health psychology. Prentice Hall, 2009. Google Scholar 51.↵ Passini S . A binge-consuming culture: the effect of consumerism on social interactions in western societies. Cult Psychol 2013;19: 369–90. doi:10.1177/1354067X13489317 [Abstract/FREE Full text] 52.↵ Alcohol Action Ireland. Harmful drinking in Ireland is highest among 18–24-year-old age group at 75{\%} Secondary Harmful drinking in Ireland is highest among 18–24-year-old age group at 75{\%} 2015. 53.↵ Kelly C, Gavin A, Molcho M . et al. The Irish health behaviour in school-aged children (HBSC) study 2010: Department of Health and National University of Ireland, 2012. Google Scholar 54.↵ Agius P, Taft A, Hemphill S, et al . Excessive alcohol use and its association with risky sexual behaviour: a cross-sectional analysis of data from Victorian secondary school students. Aust N Z J Public Health 2013;37:76–82. doi:10.1111/1753-6405.12014 Google Scholar 55.↵ Alexander EN, Bowen AM . Excessive drinking in college: behavioral outcome, not binge, as a basis for prevention. Addict Behav 2004;29:1199–205. doi:10.1016/j.addbeh.2004.03.018 [CrossRef][Medline][Web of Science]Google Scholar 56.↵ Borsari B, Boyle KE, Hustad JTP, et al . Drinking before drinking: pregaming and drinking games in mandated students. Addict Behav 2007;32:2694–705. doi:10.1016/j.addbeh.2007.05.003 [CrossRef][Medline]Google Scholar 57.↵ Byrne S . Costs to society of problem alcohol use in Ireland. Dublin: Health Service Executive, 2010. Google Scholar",
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Alcohol consumption among university students: a typology of consumption to aid the tailoring of effective public health policy. / Davoren, Martin; Cronin, Mary; Perry, Ivan J; O'Connor, Karl.

In: BMJ Open, Vol. 6, No. 11, 15.11.2016.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Alcohol consumption among university students: a typology of consumption to aid the tailoring of effective public health policy

AU - Davoren, Martin

AU - Cronin, Mary

AU - Perry, Ivan J

AU - O'Connor, Karl

N1 - Reference text: References 1.↵ Tosevski DL, Milovancevic MP, Gajic SD . Personality and psychopathology of university students. Curr Opin Psychiatry 2010;23:48. doi:10.1097/YCO.0b013e328333d625 [CrossRef][Medline]Google Scholar 2.↵ Carey KB, Scott-Sheldon LA, Carey MP, et al . Individual-level interventions to reduce college student drinking: a meta-analytic review. Addict Behav 2007;32:2469–94. doi:10.1016/j.addbeh.2007.05.004 [CrossRef][Medline][Web of Science]Google Scholar 3.↵ Murphy F, Murphy M . The use of social marketing messages to reduce binge drinking among Irish third level female students: Academic Public Administration Studies Archive-APAS. 2010. Google Scholar 4.↵ McCabe SE . Gender differences in collegiate risk factors for heavy episodic drinking. J Stud Alcohol 2002;63:49. [Medline]Google Scholar 5.↵ Wicki M, Kuntsche E, Gmel G . Drinking at European universities? A review of students’ alcohol use. Addict Behav 2010;35:913–24. doi:10.1016/j.addbeh.2010.06.015 [CrossRef][Medline][Web of Science]Google Scholar 6.↵ Davoren MP, Shiely F, Byrne M, et al . Hazardous alcohol consumption among university students in Ireland: a cross-sectional study. BMJ Open 2015;5:e006045. doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2014-006045 [Abstract/FREE Full text] 7.↵ Davoren MP, Demant J, Shiely F, et al . Alcohol consumption among university students in Ireland and the United Kingdom from 2002 to 2014: a systematic review. BMC Public Health 2016;16:1–13. doi:10.1186/s12889-016-2843-1 [Medline]Google Scholar 8.↵ Alcohol Working Group. Cardiff and Vale of Glamorgan Alcohol Working Group Action Plan: 2013–2016. 2013. 9.↵ Eurocare: European Alcohol Policy Alliane. Eurocare response to structure for EU Alcohol Action Plan: Belgium. 2014. 10.↵ NUS Alcohol Impact. NUS alcohol impact: about. Secondary NUS Alcohol Impact : About, 2015. 11.↵ Purdue University. Student affairs dashboard. Purdue University, 2012. 12.↵ Eriksson Å, Tengström A, Hodgins S . Typologies of alcohol use disorders among men with schizophrenic disorders. Addict Behav 2007;32:1146–63. doi:10.1016/j.addbeh.2006.08.003 [Medline]Google Scholar 13.↵ Cleveland MJ, Mallett KA, White HR, et al . Patterns of alcohol use and related consequences in non-college-attending emerging adults. J Stud Alcohol 2012;74:84. doi:10.15288/jsad.2013.74.84 Google Scholar 14.↵ Comasco E, Berglund K, Oreland L, et al . Why do adolescents drink? Motivational patterns related to alcohol consumption and alcohol-related problems. Subst Use Misuse 2010;45:1589–604. doi:10.3109/10826081003690159 [Medline]Google Scholar 15.↵ Craigs CL, Bewick BM, Gill J, et al . UK student alcohol consumption: a cluster analysis of drinking behaviour typologies. Health Educ J 2012;71:516–26. doi:10.1177/0017896911406967 [Abstract/FREE Full text] 16.↵ Davoren MP, Cronin M, Perry IJ, et al . A typology of alcohol consumption among young people–a narrative synthesis. Addict Res Theory 2015:1–13. Google Scholar 17.↵ Thomas DM, Watson RT . Q-sorting and MIS research: a primer. Commun Assoc Inform Syst 2002;8:141–56. Google Scholar 18.↵ Katz DL . Facing the facelessness of public health: what's the public got to do with it? Am J Health Promot 2011;25:361–2. doi:10.4278/ajhp.101103-CIT-359 [FREE Full text] 19.↵ Akhtar-Danesh N, Dehghan M, Morrison KM, et al . Parents’ perceptions and attitudes on childhood obesity: a Q-methodology study. J Am Acad Nurse Pract 2011;23:67–75. doi:10.1111/j.1745-7599.2010.00584.x [CrossRef][Medline]Google Scholar 20.↵ Davis CH, Michelle C . Q methodology in audience research: bridging the qualitative/quantitative ‘divide’? Journal of Audience and Reception Studies 2011;8:559–93.doi:10.1177/0017896911406967 Google Scholar 21.↵ Brown SR . A primer on Q methodology. Operant Subjectivity 1993;16:91–138. Google Scholar 22.↵ Van Exel J, de Graaf G . Q methodology: a sneak preview. Online document. 2005. http://wwwqmethodologynet/PDF/Q-methodology 23.↵ Watts S, Stenner P . Doing Q methodological research: theory, method & interpretation. Sage, 2012. Google Scholar 24.↵ Shabila NP, Al-Tawil NG, Al-Hadithi TS, et al . Using Q-methodology to explore people's health seeking behavior and perception of the quality of primary care services. BMC Public Health 2014;14:2. doi:10.1186/1471-2458-14-2 Google Scholar 25.↵ Babor TF, Higgins-Biddle JC, Saunders JB, et al . The alcohol use disorders identification test: guidelines for use in primary care. In: Dependence DoMHaS, ed. 2nd edn. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization, 2001:17. Google Scholar 26.↵ Haug S, Ulbricht S, Hanke M, et al . Overestimation of drinking norms and its association with alcohol consumption in apprentices. Alcohol Alcohol 2011;46:204–9. doi:10.1093/alcalc/agq103 [Abstract/FREE Full text] 27.↵ Kelly TM, Donovan JE, Chung T, et al . Brief screens for detecting alcohol use disorder among 18–20-year-old young adults in emergency departments: comparing AUDIT-C, CRAFFT, RAPS4-QF, FAST, RUFT-Cut, and DSM-IV 2-Item Scale. Addict Behav 2009;34:668–74. doi:10.1016/j.addbeh.2009.03.038 [CrossRef][Medline][Web of Science]Google Scholar 28.↵ Barry J, Proops J . Seeking sustainability discourses with Q methodology. Ecol Econ 1999;28:337–45. doi:10.1016/S0921-8009(98)00053-6 Google Scholar 29.↵ Barry J, Proops JLR . Citizenship, sustainability and environmental research: Q methodology and local exchange trading systems. Edward Elgar Pub, 2000. Google Scholar 30.↵ Webler T, Danielson S, Tuler S . Using Q method to reveal social perspectives in environmental research. SERI Rep 2009:09. Google Scholar 31.↵ Elo S, Kyngäs H . The qualitative content analysis process. J Adv Nurs 2008;62:107–15. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2648.2007.04569.x [CrossRef][Medline][Web of Science]Google Scholar 32.↵ Chiauzzi E, Dasmahapatra P, Black RA . Risk behaviors and drug use: a latent class analysis of heavy episodic drinking in first-year college students. Psychol Addict Behav 2013;27: 974–85. doi:10.1037/a0031570 [CrossRef][Medline]Google Scholar 33.↵ Hope A, Dring C, Dring J . College lifestyle and attitudinal national (CLAN) survey. The health of Irish students, health service executive, Health Promotion Unit, Department of Health and Children, Dublin. 2005. Google Scholar 34.↵ Kypri K, Cronin M, Wright CS . Do university students drink more hazardously than their non-student peers? Addiction 2005;100(5):713–14. doi:10.1111/j.1360-0443.2005.01116.x [CrossRef][Medline][Web of Science]Google Scholar 35.↵ Kypri K, Paschall MJ, Langley J, et al . Drinking and alcohol-related harm among New Zealand University students: findings from a national web-based survey. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2009;33(2):307–14. doi:10.1111/j.1530-0277.2008.00834.x [CrossRef][Medline][Web of Science]Google Scholar 36.↵ McCarthy T . Campus initiatives and student consumption of alcohol at University College Cork 2009–2010: improving student health. University College Cork, 2010. Google Scholar 37.↵ World Health Organisation. Adolescence: a unique time requiring a tailored response. Secondary Adolescence: a unique time requiring a tailored response. 2013. http://www.euro.who.int/en/health-topics/disease-prevention/alcohol-use/news/news/2013/02/adolescence-a-unique-time-requiring-a-tailored-response 38.↵ Anderson P, Chisholm D, Fuhr DC . Effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of policies and programmes to reduce the harm caused by alcohol. Lancet 2009;373:2234–46. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(09)60744-3 [CrossRef][Medline][Web of Science]Google Scholar 39.↵ Babor TF, Caetano R . Evidence-based alcohol policy in the Americas: strengths, weaknesses, and future challenges. Rev Panam Salud Publica 2005;18:327–37. doi:10.1590/S1020-49892005000900013 [Medline]Google Scholar 40.↵ Winograd RP, Steinley D, Sher K . Searching for Mr. Hyde: a five-factor approach to characterizing “types of drunks”. Addict Res Theory 2016;24:1–8. doi:10.3109/16066359.2015.1029920 Google Scholar 41.↵ Parker H . Pathology or modernity? Rethinking risk factor analyses of young drug users. Addict Res Theory 2003;11:141–4. doi:10.1080/160663502100021692 Google Scholar 42.↵ Alcohol Action Ireland. Low-risk guidelines. Secondary low-risk guidelines. 2016. http://alcoholireland.ie/alcohol-and-you/guidelines/ 43.↵ Measham F . Play space: historical and socio-cultural reflections on drugs, licensed leisure locations, commercialisation and control. Int J Drug Policy 2004;15:337–45. doi:10.1016/j.drugpo.2004.08.002 Google Scholar 44.↵ Szmigin I, Griffin C, Mistral W, et al . Reframing “binge drinking” as “calculated hedonism” empirical evidence from the UK. Int J Drug Policy 2008;19:359–66. doi:10.1016/j.drugpo.2007.08.009 [CrossRef][Medline][Web of Science]Google Scholar 45.↵ Demant J, Törrönen J . Changing drinking styles in Denmark and Finland. Fragmentation of male and female drinking among young adults. Subst Use Misuse 2011;46:1244–55. doi:10.3109/10826084.2011.569965 [CrossRef][Medline][Web of Science]Google Scholar 46.↵ Mathijssen J, Janssen M, van Bon-Martens M, et al . Adolescents and alcohol: an explorative audience segmentation analysis. BMC Public Health 2012;12:742. doi:10.1186/1471-2458-12-742 [Medline]Google Scholar 47.↵ Reboussin BA, Song EY, Shrestha A, et al . A latent class analysis of underage problem drinking: evidence from a community sample of 16−20-year-olds. Drug Alcohol Depend 2006;83:199. doi:10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2005.11.013 [CrossRef][Medline][Web of Science]Google Scholar 48.↵ Steinhausen HC, Metzke CW . The validity of adolescent types of alcohol use. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 2003;44:677–86. doi:10.1111/1469-7610.00154 [CrossRef][Medline]Google Scholar 49.↵ Stewart C, Power TG . Identifying patterns of adolescent drinking: a tri-ethnic study. J Stud Alcohol 2002;63:156. doi:10.15288/jsa.2002.63.156 [Medline][Web of Science]Google Scholar 50.↵ Morrison V, Bennett P . An introduction to health psychology. Prentice Hall, 2009. Google Scholar 51.↵ Passini S . A binge-consuming culture: the effect of consumerism on social interactions in western societies. Cult Psychol 2013;19: 369–90. doi:10.1177/1354067X13489317 [Abstract/FREE Full text] 52.↵ Alcohol Action Ireland. Harmful drinking in Ireland is highest among 18–24-year-old age group at 75% Secondary Harmful drinking in Ireland is highest among 18–24-year-old age group at 75% 2015. 53.↵ Kelly C, Gavin A, Molcho M . et al. The Irish health behaviour in school-aged children (HBSC) study 2010: Department of Health and National University of Ireland, 2012. Google Scholar 54.↵ Agius P, Taft A, Hemphill S, et al . Excessive alcohol use and its association with risky sexual behaviour: a cross-sectional analysis of data from Victorian secondary school students. Aust N Z J Public Health 2013;37:76–82. doi:10.1111/1753-6405.12014 Google Scholar 55.↵ Alexander EN, Bowen AM . Excessive drinking in college: behavioral outcome, not binge, as a basis for prevention. Addict Behav 2004;29:1199–205. doi:10.1016/j.addbeh.2004.03.018 [CrossRef][Medline][Web of Science]Google Scholar 56.↵ Borsari B, Boyle KE, Hustad JTP, et al . Drinking before drinking: pregaming and drinking games in mandated students. Addict Behav 2007;32:2694–705. doi:10.1016/j.addbeh.2007.05.003 [CrossRef][Medline]Google Scholar 57.↵ Byrne S . Costs to society of problem alcohol use in Ireland. Dublin: Health Service Executive, 2010. Google Scholar

PY - 2016/11/15

Y1 - 2016/11/15

N2 - ABSTRACT Objective: Elevated levels of alcohol consumption among university students are well documented. Policymakers have attempted to combat this issue at a university, national and international level. Tailoring public health policy to effectively tackle alcohol use is crucial. Using Q-methodology, the current study aims to develop a typology of alcohol consumption in the Irish university student population. Setting: A large Irish university. Participants: Hundreds of possible statements on types of consumption were generated from a systematic review and a set of one-on-one interviews. These were reduced to 36 statements, 6 statements which define each of the 6 previously defined consumption types. Participants were advised to scan through the 36 statements and fill the statements into a ‘forced choice, standardised distribution’. Following this, a 45–90min interview was conducted with students to illuminate subjectivity surrounding alcohol consumption. Analysis was conducted using PQ Method and NVivo software. Principal component analysis, followed by varimax rotation, was conducted to uncover the final factor information. Results: In total, 43 students completed the Q-study: 19 men and 24 women. A typology describing 4 distinct groupings of alcohol consumer was uncovered: the guarded drinker, the calculated hedonist, the peerinfluenced drinker and the inevitable binger. Factor loadings of each of the consumer groupings were noted for type description. Conclusions: This is the first study to propose ideal types of alcohol consumption among a university student population. Further research is required to investigate the degree to which each of these ideal types is subscribed. However, this typology, in addition to informing public policy and strategies, will be a valuable analytic tool in future research.

AB - ABSTRACT Objective: Elevated levels of alcohol consumption among university students are well documented. Policymakers have attempted to combat this issue at a university, national and international level. Tailoring public health policy to effectively tackle alcohol use is crucial. Using Q-methodology, the current study aims to develop a typology of alcohol consumption in the Irish university student population. Setting: A large Irish university. Participants: Hundreds of possible statements on types of consumption were generated from a systematic review and a set of one-on-one interviews. These were reduced to 36 statements, 6 statements which define each of the 6 previously defined consumption types. Participants were advised to scan through the 36 statements and fill the statements into a ‘forced choice, standardised distribution’. Following this, a 45–90min interview was conducted with students to illuminate subjectivity surrounding alcohol consumption. Analysis was conducted using PQ Method and NVivo software. Principal component analysis, followed by varimax rotation, was conducted to uncover the final factor information. Results: In total, 43 students completed the Q-study: 19 men and 24 women. A typology describing 4 distinct groupings of alcohol consumer was uncovered: the guarded drinker, the calculated hedonist, the peerinfluenced drinker and the inevitable binger. Factor loadings of each of the consumer groupings were noted for type description. Conclusions: This is the first study to propose ideal types of alcohol consumption among a university student population. Further research is required to investigate the degree to which each of these ideal types is subscribed. However, this typology, in addition to informing public policy and strategies, will be a valuable analytic tool in future research.

KW - Q Methodology

KW - Alcohol

KW - Youth

KW - Drug

KW - health

KW - policy

UR - https://pure.ulster.ac.uk/en/publications/alcohol-consumption-among-university-students-a-typology-of-consu-3

U2 - 10.1136/bmjopen-2016-011815

DO - 10.1136/bmjopen-2016-011815

M3 - Article

VL - 6

JO - BMJ Open

T2 - BMJ Open

JF - BMJ Open

SN - 2044-6055

IS - 11

ER -