Airflow and aeolian sediment transport patterns within a coastal trough blowout during lateral wind conditions

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Abstract

Blowouts are depressions that occur on coastal dunes, deserts and grasslands. The absence of vegetation in blowouts permits high speed winds to entrain and remove sediment. Whereas much research has examined patterns of wind flow and sediment transport on the stoss slopes and lee of sand dunes, no study has yet investigated the connections between secondary air-flow structures and sediment transport in a blowout where zones of streamline compression, expansion and steering are less clearly delineated. In this study we investigated the variability of sediment flux and its relation to near-surface wind speed and turbulence within a trough blowout during wind flow that was oblique to the axis of the blowout. Wind flow was measured using six, 3-D ultrasonic anemometers while sediment flux by eight sand traps, all operating at 25 Hz. Results demonstrated that sediment flux rates were highly variable throughout the blowout deflation basin, even over short distances (<0.5 m). Where flow was steadiest, flux was greatest. Consequently the highest rates of sediment transport were recorded on the erosional wall crest where flow was compressed and accelerated. The strength of correlation between sediment flux and wind parameter improved with an increase in averaging interval, from 10 seconds to 1 minute. At an interval of 10 seconds, however, wind speed correlated best with flux at seven of eight traps, whereas at an interval of 1 minute Turbulent Kinetic Energy (TKE) provided the best correlation with flux at six of the eight traps. Correlation between sediment flux and wind parameters was best in the centre of the blowout and poorest on the erosional wall crest. The evidence from this paper suggests, for the first time, that TKE may be a better predictor of sediment transport at minute scale averaging intervals, particularly over landforms where wind flow is highly turbulent.
LanguageEnglish
Pages1847-1854
JournalEARTH SURFACE PROCESSES & LANDFORMS
Volume39
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2 Mar 2014

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blowout
airflow
sediment transport
trough
sediment
wind velocity
kinetic energy
dune
secondary flow
deflation
anemometer
steady flow
flow structure
surface wind
landform
desert
turbulence
grassland
compression
sand

Cite this

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title = "Airflow and aeolian sediment transport patterns within a coastal trough blowout during lateral wind conditions",
abstract = "Blowouts are depressions that occur on coastal dunes, deserts and grasslands. The absence of vegetation in blowouts permits high speed winds to entrain and remove sediment. Whereas much research has examined patterns of wind flow and sediment transport on the stoss slopes and lee of sand dunes, no study has yet investigated the connections between secondary air-flow structures and sediment transport in a blowout where zones of streamline compression, expansion and steering are less clearly delineated. In this study we investigated the variability of sediment flux and its relation to near-surface wind speed and turbulence within a trough blowout during wind flow that was oblique to the axis of the blowout. Wind flow was measured using six, 3-D ultrasonic anemometers while sediment flux by eight sand traps, all operating at 25 Hz. Results demonstrated that sediment flux rates were highly variable throughout the blowout deflation basin, even over short distances (<0.5 m). Where flow was steadiest, flux was greatest. Consequently the highest rates of sediment transport were recorded on the erosional wall crest where flow was compressed and accelerated. The strength of correlation between sediment flux and wind parameter improved with an increase in averaging interval, from 10 seconds to 1 minute. At an interval of 10 seconds, however, wind speed correlated best with flux at seven of eight traps, whereas at an interval of 1 minute Turbulent Kinetic Energy (TKE) provided the best correlation with flux at six of the eight traps. Correlation between sediment flux and wind parameters was best in the centre of the blowout and poorest on the erosional wall crest. The evidence from this paper suggests, for the first time, that TKE may be a better predictor of sediment transport at minute scale averaging intervals, particularly over landforms where wind flow is highly turbulent.",
author = "T.A.G. Smyth and D.W.T. Jackson and Andrew Cooper",
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TY - JOUR

T1 - Airflow and aeolian sediment transport patterns within a coastal trough blowout during lateral wind conditions

AU - Smyth, T.A.G.

AU - Jackson, D.W.T.

AU - Cooper, Andrew

PY - 2014/3/2

Y1 - 2014/3/2

N2 - Blowouts are depressions that occur on coastal dunes, deserts and grasslands. The absence of vegetation in blowouts permits high speed winds to entrain and remove sediment. Whereas much research has examined patterns of wind flow and sediment transport on the stoss slopes and lee of sand dunes, no study has yet investigated the connections between secondary air-flow structures and sediment transport in a blowout where zones of streamline compression, expansion and steering are less clearly delineated. In this study we investigated the variability of sediment flux and its relation to near-surface wind speed and turbulence within a trough blowout during wind flow that was oblique to the axis of the blowout. Wind flow was measured using six, 3-D ultrasonic anemometers while sediment flux by eight sand traps, all operating at 25 Hz. Results demonstrated that sediment flux rates were highly variable throughout the blowout deflation basin, even over short distances (<0.5 m). Where flow was steadiest, flux was greatest. Consequently the highest rates of sediment transport were recorded on the erosional wall crest where flow was compressed and accelerated. The strength of correlation between sediment flux and wind parameter improved with an increase in averaging interval, from 10 seconds to 1 minute. At an interval of 10 seconds, however, wind speed correlated best with flux at seven of eight traps, whereas at an interval of 1 minute Turbulent Kinetic Energy (TKE) provided the best correlation with flux at six of the eight traps. Correlation between sediment flux and wind parameters was best in the centre of the blowout and poorest on the erosional wall crest. The evidence from this paper suggests, for the first time, that TKE may be a better predictor of sediment transport at minute scale averaging intervals, particularly over landforms where wind flow is highly turbulent.

AB - Blowouts are depressions that occur on coastal dunes, deserts and grasslands. The absence of vegetation in blowouts permits high speed winds to entrain and remove sediment. Whereas much research has examined patterns of wind flow and sediment transport on the stoss slopes and lee of sand dunes, no study has yet investigated the connections between secondary air-flow structures and sediment transport in a blowout where zones of streamline compression, expansion and steering are less clearly delineated. In this study we investigated the variability of sediment flux and its relation to near-surface wind speed and turbulence within a trough blowout during wind flow that was oblique to the axis of the blowout. Wind flow was measured using six, 3-D ultrasonic anemometers while sediment flux by eight sand traps, all operating at 25 Hz. Results demonstrated that sediment flux rates were highly variable throughout the blowout deflation basin, even over short distances (<0.5 m). Where flow was steadiest, flux was greatest. Consequently the highest rates of sediment transport were recorded on the erosional wall crest where flow was compressed and accelerated. The strength of correlation between sediment flux and wind parameter improved with an increase in averaging interval, from 10 seconds to 1 minute. At an interval of 10 seconds, however, wind speed correlated best with flux at seven of eight traps, whereas at an interval of 1 minute Turbulent Kinetic Energy (TKE) provided the best correlation with flux at six of the eight traps. Correlation between sediment flux and wind parameters was best in the centre of the blowout and poorest on the erosional wall crest. The evidence from this paper suggests, for the first time, that TKE may be a better predictor of sediment transport at minute scale averaging intervals, particularly over landforms where wind flow is highly turbulent.

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M3 - Article

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SN - 0197-9337

ER -