Afrophobia in Ireland: Racism against People of African Descent

Lucy Michael

    Research output: Book/ReportCommissioned report

    Abstract

    This timely and essential report by Dr LucyMichael of Ulster University interrogates thenature and extent of racism against peopleof African descent in Ireland. It is the firstof a series of thematic reports publishedby ENAR Ireland using data from theiReport.ie racist incident reporting system.Neighbourhood harassment, violence,abuse and discrimination in the public andprivate sectors are each explored to helpunderstand the key challenges today forIrish government and society.
    LanguageEnglish
    Number of pages44
    Publication statusPublished - 19 Nov 2015

    Fingerprint

    racism
    Ireland
    reporting system
    incident
    public sector
    discrimination
    abuse
    violence
    Society

    Keywords

    • Racism
    • people of African descent
    • Afrophobia
    • anti-Blackness
    • Ireland
    • European Network against Racism
    • racist incident reporting

    Cite this

    @book{a745bbc0765a4b9fafe38bc6e620df01,
    title = "Afrophobia in Ireland: Racism against People of African Descent",
    abstract = "This timely and essential report by Dr LucyMichael of Ulster University interrogates thenature and extent of racism against peopleof African descent in Ireland. It is the firstof a series of thematic reports publishedby ENAR Ireland using data from theiReport.ie racist incident reporting system.Neighbourhood harassment, violence,abuse and discrimination in the public andprivate sectors are each explored to helpunderstand the key challenges today forIrish government and society.",
    keywords = "Racism, people of African descent, Afrophobia, anti-Blackness, Ireland, European Network against Racism, racist incident reporting",
    author = "Lucy Michael",
    note = "Reference text: ‘Experience of Persons of Mixed Race in State Institutions: Mixed Race Irish’, Joint Oireachtas Committee on Justice, Defence and Equality, 22 October 2014, https://www.kildarestreet.com/committees/?id=2014-10-22a.543 A. Lentin, & R. Lentin (Eds.) (2009) Race and state. Cambridge: Cambridge Scholars; R. Lentin (2007) ‘Illegal in Ireland, Irish Illegals: Diaspora Nation as Racial State’, Irish Political Studies, 22(4), 433-453. An Garda Siochana (no date) ‘Your Police Service in Intercultural Ireland’, http://www.garda.ie/Documents/User/racial{\%}20and{\%}20intercultural{\%}20english.pdf B. Fanning & R. Munck (Eds.) (2012) Globalization, migration and social transformation: Ireland in Europe and the world. Farnham: Ashgate B. Fanning, B. Killoran, S. N{\'i} Bhroin, and G. McEvoy (2012) Taking Racism Seriously: Migrants’ Experiences of Violence, Harassment and Anti-Social Behaviour in the Dublin Area. (Dublin: Immigrant Council of Ireland) B. Perry & S Alvi (2012) ‘We are all vulnerable’: The in terrorem effects of hate crimes’, International Review of Victimology, 18(1), 57-71. B. Perry (2001) ‘Accounting for hate crime: Doing Difference’, in B. Perry (ed.) In the Name of Hate, pp.31-56. Routledge. Central Statistics Office (2008) Census 2006: Non-Irish Nationals Living in Ireland. Dublin: Stationery Office. ISBN 1-4064-2055-5. D. Byrne, F. McGinnity , E. Smyth & M. Darmody (2010) ‘Immigration and school composition in Ireland’, Irish Educational Studies, 29(3), 271-288. D. Devine (2009) ‘Mobilising Capitals? Migrant Children’s Negotiation of Their Everyday Lives in School’, British Journal of Sociology of Education, 30(5), 521–535. D.J. Shandy (2008) ‘Irish Babies, African Mothers: Rites of Passage and Rights in Citizenship in Post-Millennial Ireland’, Anthropological Quarterly, Volume 81, Number 4, Fall 2008, pp. 803-831. Employment Equality Acts 1998–2011 and the Equal Status Acts 2000–2012. ENAR (2014) Invisible Visible Minority: Confronting Afrophobia and Advancing Equality for People of African Descent and Black Europeans in Europe. ENAR Anti-Racism in Focus 2. Brussels: European Network Against Racism (ENAR). ISBN: 978-2-9601308-1-2. Equality and Rights Alliance (2015) A New Public Sector Equality & Human Rights Duty. Paper 3 of series: Setting Standards for the Irish Equality and Human Rights Infrastructure. March 2015. Available at: http://www.eracampaign.org/uploads/A{\%}20New{\%}20Public{\%}20Sector{\%}20Duty{\%}20March{\%}202015.pdf European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights (2009) European Union Minorities and Discrimination Survey, http:///fra.europa.eu/eu-midis/ G. Mason (2007) ‘Hate Crime as a Moral Category: Lessons From the Snowtown Case’, Australian & New Zealand Journal of Criminology, 40(3), 249-271. Gartland, F. (2015). Mixed race Irish in State care subjected to colour specific abuse, Oireachtas told. The Irish Times. [online] Available at: http://www.irishtimes.com/news/politics/oireachtas/mixed-race-irish-in-state-care-subjected-to-colour-specific-abuse-oireachtas-told-1.1973416 http://www.bitc.ie/2015/06/transdev-ireland-action-on-diversity-and-anti-racism-receives-interest-at-european-level/ http://www.irr.org.uk/news/black-deaths-in-custody/ J. Schweppe, A. Haynes and J. Carr (2015) 'Out of the Shandows: Legislating for Hate Crime in Ireland', Limerick: HHRG/ICCL. J.Levin and J.McDevitt (2002). Hate crimes revisited: America's war against those who are different. New York: Basic Books. K. Myers (2007) ‘The problem isn't racism, it's the tidal wave of immigrants’, The Irish Independent, 5 September 2007. K.M. Craig (1999) ‘Retaliation, fear, or rage an investigation of African American and White reactions to racist hate crimes’, Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 14(2), 138-151 L. Michael and S. O’Curry (2014) Reports of racism in Ireland: 3rd Quarterly Report of iReport.ie. Dublin: ENAR Ireland. M. Mistry and J. Latoo (2009) ‘Uncovering the face of racism in the workplace’, British Journal of Medical Practitioners, 2(2), 20-24, and M. Parker-Jenkins & M. Masterson (2013) No longer ‘Catholic, White and Gaelic’: schools in Ireland coming to terms with cultural diversity, Irish Educational Studies, 32(4), 477-492 M.G. Jenkins, L.G. Rocke, B.P. McNicholl and D.M. Hughes (1998) ‘Violence and verbal abuse against staff in accident and emergency departments: a survey of consultants in the UK and the Republic of Ireland’, J Accid Emerg Med, 15(4), 262-5. M{\aa}ngkulturellt Centrum (2014) Afrofobi: En kunskaps{\"o}versikt {\"o}ver afrosvenskars situation i dagens Sverige. [Afrophobia: An overview of the development of the situation of Afro-Swedes in Sweden today] Tumba: M{\aa}ngkulturellt centrum. http://mkcentrum.se/wp-content/uploads/2014/12/Afrofobi-20140203-f{\%}C3{\%}B6r-webben.pdf McCracken, D. (1991). The Irish in South Africa - The Police: a case study. Familia, 2(7), pp.40-6. NACRO (2007) Black communities, mental health and the criminal justice system, London: NACRO. P. Essed (1991) Understanding Everyday Racism. London: Sage. P. Iganski (2001) ‘Hate crimes hurt more’, American Behavioral Scientist, 45(4), 626-638. RED Network (2012) Afrophobia. http://www.red-network.eu/?i=red-network.en.thesaurus.1 S. Garner (2003). Racism in the Irish experience. London: Pluto Press; R. Lentin (2001). Responding to the racialisation of Irishness: Disavowed multiculturalism and its discontents’, Sociological Research Online, vol. 5, no. 4, http://www.socresonline.org.uk/5/4/lentin.html; B. Walter (2001). Outsiders inside: whiteness, place, and Irish women. New York: Psychology Press. T.P. Coogan (2002). Wherever Green is Worn: The Story of Irish Diaspora. London: Random House. United Nations General Assembly resolution 69/16, Programme of activities for the implementation of the International Decade for People of African Descent, A/RES/69/16 (18 November 2014), available from undocs.org/A/RES/69/16. V Jaichand (2010) Riding Along With Racism? Research on the Galway Taxi Industry: Employment Opportunities, Patterns of Public Use and User Perceptions. Galway: Irish Centre for Human Rights. Z. Haque (2010) ‘The Changing Landscape of Equalities, Cohesion, Human Rights and Public Services’, in 2020 Public Services Trust at the RSA: Equality, Cohesion and Public Services, London: Public Services Trust. ZM Vang (2010) ‘Housing supply and residential segregation in Ireland’, Urban Studies, 47(14), 2983-3012.",
    year = "2015",
    month = "11",
    day = "19",
    language = "English",

    }

    Afrophobia in Ireland: Racism against People of African Descent. / Michael, Lucy.

    2015. 44 p.

    Research output: Book/ReportCommissioned report

    TY - BOOK

    T1 - Afrophobia in Ireland: Racism against People of African Descent

    AU - Michael, Lucy

    N1 - Reference text: ‘Experience of Persons of Mixed Race in State Institutions: Mixed Race Irish’, Joint Oireachtas Committee on Justice, Defence and Equality, 22 October 2014, https://www.kildarestreet.com/committees/?id=2014-10-22a.543 A. Lentin, & R. Lentin (Eds.) (2009) Race and state. Cambridge: Cambridge Scholars; R. Lentin (2007) ‘Illegal in Ireland, Irish Illegals: Diaspora Nation as Racial State’, Irish Political Studies, 22(4), 433-453. An Garda Siochana (no date) ‘Your Police Service in Intercultural Ireland’, http://www.garda.ie/Documents/User/racial%20and%20intercultural%20english.pdf B. Fanning & R. Munck (Eds.) (2012) Globalization, migration and social transformation: Ireland in Europe and the world. Farnham: Ashgate B. Fanning, B. Killoran, S. Ní Bhroin, and G. McEvoy (2012) Taking Racism Seriously: Migrants’ Experiences of Violence, Harassment and Anti-Social Behaviour in the Dublin Area. (Dublin: Immigrant Council of Ireland) B. Perry & S Alvi (2012) ‘We are all vulnerable’: The in terrorem effects of hate crimes’, International Review of Victimology, 18(1), 57-71. B. Perry (2001) ‘Accounting for hate crime: Doing Difference’, in B. Perry (ed.) In the Name of Hate, pp.31-56. Routledge. Central Statistics Office (2008) Census 2006: Non-Irish Nationals Living in Ireland. Dublin: Stationery Office. ISBN 1-4064-2055-5. D. Byrne, F. McGinnity , E. Smyth & M. Darmody (2010) ‘Immigration and school composition in Ireland’, Irish Educational Studies, 29(3), 271-288. D. Devine (2009) ‘Mobilising Capitals? Migrant Children’s Negotiation of Their Everyday Lives in School’, British Journal of Sociology of Education, 30(5), 521–535. D.J. Shandy (2008) ‘Irish Babies, African Mothers: Rites of Passage and Rights in Citizenship in Post-Millennial Ireland’, Anthropological Quarterly, Volume 81, Number 4, Fall 2008, pp. 803-831. Employment Equality Acts 1998–2011 and the Equal Status Acts 2000–2012. ENAR (2014) Invisible Visible Minority: Confronting Afrophobia and Advancing Equality for People of African Descent and Black Europeans in Europe. ENAR Anti-Racism in Focus 2. Brussels: European Network Against Racism (ENAR). ISBN: 978-2-9601308-1-2. Equality and Rights Alliance (2015) A New Public Sector Equality & Human Rights Duty. Paper 3 of series: Setting Standards for the Irish Equality and Human Rights Infrastructure. March 2015. Available at: http://www.eracampaign.org/uploads/A%20New%20Public%20Sector%20Duty%20March%202015.pdf European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights (2009) European Union Minorities and Discrimination Survey, http:///fra.europa.eu/eu-midis/ G. Mason (2007) ‘Hate Crime as a Moral Category: Lessons From the Snowtown Case’, Australian & New Zealand Journal of Criminology, 40(3), 249-271. Gartland, F. (2015). Mixed race Irish in State care subjected to colour specific abuse, Oireachtas told. The Irish Times. [online] Available at: http://www.irishtimes.com/news/politics/oireachtas/mixed-race-irish-in-state-care-subjected-to-colour-specific-abuse-oireachtas-told-1.1973416 http://www.bitc.ie/2015/06/transdev-ireland-action-on-diversity-and-anti-racism-receives-interest-at-european-level/ http://www.irr.org.uk/news/black-deaths-in-custody/ J. Schweppe, A. Haynes and J. Carr (2015) 'Out of the Shandows: Legislating for Hate Crime in Ireland', Limerick: HHRG/ICCL. J.Levin and J.McDevitt (2002). Hate crimes revisited: America's war against those who are different. New York: Basic Books. K. Myers (2007) ‘The problem isn't racism, it's the tidal wave of immigrants’, The Irish Independent, 5 September 2007. K.M. Craig (1999) ‘Retaliation, fear, or rage an investigation of African American and White reactions to racist hate crimes’, Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 14(2), 138-151 L. Michael and S. O’Curry (2014) Reports of racism in Ireland: 3rd Quarterly Report of iReport.ie. Dublin: ENAR Ireland. M. Mistry and J. Latoo (2009) ‘Uncovering the face of racism in the workplace’, British Journal of Medical Practitioners, 2(2), 20-24, and M. Parker-Jenkins & M. Masterson (2013) No longer ‘Catholic, White and Gaelic’: schools in Ireland coming to terms with cultural diversity, Irish Educational Studies, 32(4), 477-492 M.G. Jenkins, L.G. Rocke, B.P. McNicholl and D.M. Hughes (1998) ‘Violence and verbal abuse against staff in accident and emergency departments: a survey of consultants in the UK and the Republic of Ireland’, J Accid Emerg Med, 15(4), 262-5. Mångkulturellt Centrum (2014) Afrofobi: En kunskapsöversikt över afrosvenskars situation i dagens Sverige. [Afrophobia: An overview of the development of the situation of Afro-Swedes in Sweden today] Tumba: Mångkulturellt centrum. http://mkcentrum.se/wp-content/uploads/2014/12/Afrofobi-20140203-f%C3%B6r-webben.pdf McCracken, D. (1991). The Irish in South Africa - The Police: a case study. Familia, 2(7), pp.40-6. NACRO (2007) Black communities, mental health and the criminal justice system, London: NACRO. P. Essed (1991) Understanding Everyday Racism. London: Sage. P. Iganski (2001) ‘Hate crimes hurt more’, American Behavioral Scientist, 45(4), 626-638. RED Network (2012) Afrophobia. http://www.red-network.eu/?i=red-network.en.thesaurus.1 S. Garner (2003). Racism in the Irish experience. London: Pluto Press; R. Lentin (2001). Responding to the racialisation of Irishness: Disavowed multiculturalism and its discontents’, Sociological Research Online, vol. 5, no. 4, http://www.socresonline.org.uk/5/4/lentin.html; B. Walter (2001). Outsiders inside: whiteness, place, and Irish women. New York: Psychology Press. T.P. Coogan (2002). Wherever Green is Worn: The Story of Irish Diaspora. London: Random House. United Nations General Assembly resolution 69/16, Programme of activities for the implementation of the International Decade for People of African Descent, A/RES/69/16 (18 November 2014), available from undocs.org/A/RES/69/16. V Jaichand (2010) Riding Along With Racism? Research on the Galway Taxi Industry: Employment Opportunities, Patterns of Public Use and User Perceptions. Galway: Irish Centre for Human Rights. Z. Haque (2010) ‘The Changing Landscape of Equalities, Cohesion, Human Rights and Public Services’, in 2020 Public Services Trust at the RSA: Equality, Cohesion and Public Services, London: Public Services Trust. ZM Vang (2010) ‘Housing supply and residential segregation in Ireland’, Urban Studies, 47(14), 2983-3012.

    PY - 2015/11/19

    Y1 - 2015/11/19

    N2 - This timely and essential report by Dr LucyMichael of Ulster University interrogates thenature and extent of racism against peopleof African descent in Ireland. It is the firstof a series of thematic reports publishedby ENAR Ireland using data from theiReport.ie racist incident reporting system.Neighbourhood harassment, violence,abuse and discrimination in the public andprivate sectors are each explored to helpunderstand the key challenges today forIrish government and society.

    AB - This timely and essential report by Dr LucyMichael of Ulster University interrogates thenature and extent of racism against peopleof African descent in Ireland. It is the firstof a series of thematic reports publishedby ENAR Ireland using data from theiReport.ie racist incident reporting system.Neighbourhood harassment, violence,abuse and discrimination in the public andprivate sectors are each explored to helpunderstand the key challenges today forIrish government and society.

    KW - Racism

    KW - people of African descent

    KW - Afrophobia

    KW - anti-Blackness

    KW - Ireland

    KW - European Network against Racism

    KW - racist incident reporting

    M3 - Commissioned report

    BT - Afrophobia in Ireland: Racism against People of African Descent

    ER -