Objectives We set out to test, using latent variable modelling, whether adverse and benevolent childhood experiences could be best described as a single continuum or two correlated constructs. We also modelled the relationship between adverse and benevolent childhood experiences and ICD-11 PTSD and Complex PTSD (CPTSD) symptoms and explored if these associations were indirect via psychological trauma. Methods Data were collected from a trauma-exposed sample (N = 275) attending a specialist trauma care centre in the United Kingdom. Participants completed measures of childhood adverse and benevolent experiences, traumatic exposure, and PTSD and CPTSD symptoms. Results Findings suggested that adverse childhood experiences operate only indirectly on PTSD and CPTSD symptoms through lifetime trauma exposure, and with a stronger effect for PTSD. Benevolent childhood experiences directly predicted only CPTSD symptoms. Conclusions Benevolent and traumatic experiences seem to form unique associations with PTSD and CPTSD symptoms. Future research is needed to explore how benevolent experiences can be integrated within existing psychological interventions to maximise recovery from traumatic stress.
|Journal||European Journal of Psychotraumatology|
|Publication status||Accepted/In press - 27 Jun 2020|
- Benevolent Experiences
- Adverse Experiences
Karatzias, T., Shevlin, M., Fyvie, C., Grandison, G., Garozi, M., Latham, E., Sinclair, M., Ho, G. W. K. H., McAnee, G., Ford, J. D., & Hyland, P. (Accepted/In press). Adverse and Benevolent Childhood Experiences in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and Complex PTSD (CPTSD): Implications for Trauma-Focused Therapies. European Journal of Psychotraumatology.