Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) is an approved treatment for intractable pain and has recently emerged as a promising area of research for restoring function after spinal cord lesion. This review will focus on the historical evolution of this transition and the path that remains to be taken for these methods to be rigorously evaluated for application in clinical practice. New developments in SCS are being driven by advances in the understanding of spinal cord lesions at the molecular, cellular, and neuronal levels, as well as the understanding of compensatory mechanisms. Advances in neuroengineering and the computational neurosciences have enabled the development of new conceptual SCS strategies, such as spatiotemporal neuromodulation, which allows spatially selective stimulation at precise time points during anticipated movement. It has also become increasingly clear that these methods are only effective when combined with intensive rehabilitation techniques, such as new task-oriented methods and robotic aids. The emergence of innovative approaches to spinal cord neuromodulation has sparked significant enthusiasm among patients and in the media. Non-invasive methods are perceived to offer improved safety, patient acceptance, and cost-effectiveness. There is an immediate need for well-designed clinical trials involving consumer or advocacy groups to evaluate and compare the effectiveness of various treatment modalities, assess safety considerations, and establish outcome priorities.
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- Spinal Cord Stimulation
- Epidural Stimulation
- Transcutaneous Magnetic Stimulation
- Transcutaneous Electric Stimulation
- Non-invasive Stimulation
- transcutaneous magnetic stimulation
- epidural stimulation
- transcutaneous electric stimulation
- spinal cord stimulation
- non-invasive stimulation