Adenosine in the venoms from viperinae snakes of the genus Bitis: identification and quantitation using LC/MS and CE/MS

RL Graham, Stephen McClean, EJ O'Kane, D Theakston, C Shaw

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

15 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Snake venoms are rich sources of toxic proteins and small molecules. This study was directed at molecules of molecular mass below 1 kDa. Thirty different venoms, of either neurotoxic or haemorrhagic type, were fractionated using size-exclusion chromatography. Only venoms of the Puff adder (Bitis arietans), Gaboon viper (Bitis gabonica), and Rhinoceros viper (Bitis nasicornis) exhibited large absorbance peaks at lambda(280 nm) in the total volume range of the chromatographic column indicating the presence of abundant low molecular mass material. Analysis of fractions containing this material using both HPLC and capillary electrophoresis interfaced with electrospray ion-trap mass spectrometry unequivocally established that the bioactive nucleoside, adenosine, was the major component. The concentrations of adenosine found (Puff adder--97.7 x 10(-6) mol L(-1); Gaboon viper--28.0 x 10(-6) mol L(-1); and Rhinoceros viper-56.8 x 10(-6) mol L(-1)) were above those required to activate all known sub-types of adenosine receptors. Adenosine may thus act at the site of envenomation causing local vasodilatation and may play a role in the subsequent systemic hypotension observed.
LanguageEnglish
Pages88-94
JournalBiochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Volume333
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2005

Fingerprint

Snake Venoms
Viperidae
Adenosine
Venoms
Purinergic P1 Receptors
Poisons
Capillary Electrophoresis
Nucleosides
Vasodilation
Hypotension
Gel Chromatography
Mass Spectrometry
High Pressure Liquid Chromatography
Ions
Proteins

Keywords

  • Adenosine/analysis/chemistry
  • Animals
  • Chromatography
  • High Pressure Liquid/methods
  • Electrophoresis
  • Capillary/methods
  • Species Specificity
  • Spectrometry
  • Mass
  • Electrospray Ionization/methods
  • Viper Venoms/analysis/chemistry
  • Viperidae/classification/metabolism

Cite this

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title = "Adenosine in the venoms from viperinae snakes of the genus Bitis: identification and quantitation using LC/MS and CE/MS",
abstract = "Snake venoms are rich sources of toxic proteins and small molecules. This study was directed at molecules of molecular mass below 1 kDa. Thirty different venoms, of either neurotoxic or haemorrhagic type, were fractionated using size-exclusion chromatography. Only venoms of the Puff adder (Bitis arietans), Gaboon viper (Bitis gabonica), and Rhinoceros viper (Bitis nasicornis) exhibited large absorbance peaks at lambda(280 nm) in the total volume range of the chromatographic column indicating the presence of abundant low molecular mass material. Analysis of fractions containing this material using both HPLC and capillary electrophoresis interfaced with electrospray ion-trap mass spectrometry unequivocally established that the bioactive nucleoside, adenosine, was the major component. The concentrations of adenosine found (Puff adder--97.7 x 10(-6) mol L(-1); Gaboon viper--28.0 x 10(-6) mol L(-1); and Rhinoceros viper-56.8 x 10(-6) mol L(-1)) were above those required to activate all known sub-types of adenosine receptors. Adenosine may thus act at the site of envenomation causing local vasodilatation and may play a role in the subsequent systemic hypotension observed.",
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author = "RL Graham and Stephen McClean and EJ O'Kane and D Theakston and C Shaw",
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Adenosine in the venoms from viperinae snakes of the genus Bitis: identification and quantitation using LC/MS and CE/MS. / Graham, RL; McClean, Stephen; O'Kane, EJ; Theakston, D; Shaw, C.

Vol. 333, No. 1, 07.2005, p. 88-94.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Adenosine in the venoms from viperinae snakes of the genus Bitis: identification and quantitation using LC/MS and CE/MS

AU - Graham, RL

AU - McClean, Stephen

AU - O'Kane, EJ

AU - Theakston, D

AU - Shaw, C

N1 - LR: 20061115; PUBM: Print; JID: 0372516; 0 (Viper Venoms); 58-61-7 (Adenosine); 2005/05/13 [received]; 2005/05/14 [accepted]; ppublish

PY - 2005/7

Y1 - 2005/7

N2 - Snake venoms are rich sources of toxic proteins and small molecules. This study was directed at molecules of molecular mass below 1 kDa. Thirty different venoms, of either neurotoxic or haemorrhagic type, were fractionated using size-exclusion chromatography. Only venoms of the Puff adder (Bitis arietans), Gaboon viper (Bitis gabonica), and Rhinoceros viper (Bitis nasicornis) exhibited large absorbance peaks at lambda(280 nm) in the total volume range of the chromatographic column indicating the presence of abundant low molecular mass material. Analysis of fractions containing this material using both HPLC and capillary electrophoresis interfaced with electrospray ion-trap mass spectrometry unequivocally established that the bioactive nucleoside, adenosine, was the major component. The concentrations of adenosine found (Puff adder--97.7 x 10(-6) mol L(-1); Gaboon viper--28.0 x 10(-6) mol L(-1); and Rhinoceros viper-56.8 x 10(-6) mol L(-1)) were above those required to activate all known sub-types of adenosine receptors. Adenosine may thus act at the site of envenomation causing local vasodilatation and may play a role in the subsequent systemic hypotension observed.

AB - Snake venoms are rich sources of toxic proteins and small molecules. This study was directed at molecules of molecular mass below 1 kDa. Thirty different venoms, of either neurotoxic or haemorrhagic type, were fractionated using size-exclusion chromatography. Only venoms of the Puff adder (Bitis arietans), Gaboon viper (Bitis gabonica), and Rhinoceros viper (Bitis nasicornis) exhibited large absorbance peaks at lambda(280 nm) in the total volume range of the chromatographic column indicating the presence of abundant low molecular mass material. Analysis of fractions containing this material using both HPLC and capillary electrophoresis interfaced with electrospray ion-trap mass spectrometry unequivocally established that the bioactive nucleoside, adenosine, was the major component. The concentrations of adenosine found (Puff adder--97.7 x 10(-6) mol L(-1); Gaboon viper--28.0 x 10(-6) mol L(-1); and Rhinoceros viper-56.8 x 10(-6) mol L(-1)) were above those required to activate all known sub-types of adenosine receptors. Adenosine may thus act at the site of envenomation causing local vasodilatation and may play a role in the subsequent systemic hypotension observed.

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KW - High Pressure Liquid/methods

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KW - Capillary/methods

KW - Species Specificity

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KW - Mass

KW - Electrospray Ionization/methods

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