Additive Manufacturing and Characterization of Architectured Cement-based Materials via X-ray Micro-Computed Tomography

Mohamadreza Moini, Jan Olek, Bryan Magee, Jeffrey Youngblood, Pablo Zavattieri

Research output: Contribution to conferencePaper

Abstract

There is an increasing interest in the fabrication of cement-based ma-terials via additive manufacturing (AM) techniques. However, the processing-induced heterogeneities and interfaces represent a major challenge. The role of processing in creating interfaces and their characteristics requires understanding of the microstructure of 3D-printed hardened cement paste (hcp). This work in-vestigates the microstructural features of architectured cement-based materials, including processing-induced heterogeneous patterns, interfacial regions (IRs), and pore network distributions with respect to the architectural pattern. A 3D printer was modified and merged with an extrusion system and specimens were 3D-printed using a layer-wise direct ink writing (DIW) process capable of fabri-cation of ‘lamellar' architectures of materials. A lab-based X-ray microscope (XRM) was used to perform X-ray micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) evaluations to explore the microstructural characteristics of 3-day old intact (i.e. not tested) 3D printed and cast specimens at two levels of magnification: 0.4X and 4X. CT scans of printed specimen revealed a patterned pore network and several microstructural features, including: a) macropores (visible during print-ing), b) micropores at interfacial regions (IRs), c) accumulation of anhydrous ce-ment particles near macropores, and d) rearrangement of filaments away from their designed toolpath. In comparison, microstructural investigation of cast spec-imen at 4X scan revealed randomly distributed pores with no connectivity throughout the specimen. The aptitude of micro-CT as a non-destructive tech-nique for microstructural characterization of architectured cement-based materi-als is discussed. The role of processing to induce and to pattern heterogeneities such as IRs in materials is demonstrated and the role of architecture in controlling such heterogeneities and their directionality through the interface is discussed.

Conference

Conference1st RILEM International Conference on Concrete and Digital Fabrication
CountrySwitzerland
CityZurich
Period10/09/1812/09/18

Fingerprint

3D printers
Tomography
Cements
X rays
Processing
X ray microscopes
Computerized tomography
Electric power distribution
Ink
Extrusion
Positive ions
Fabrication
Microstructure

Keywords

  • 3D-printing
  • Cement paste
  • Micro-CT
  • Interfacial Region (IR)

Cite this

Moini, M., Olek, J., Magee, B., Youngblood, J., & Zavattieri, P. (2018). Additive Manufacturing and Characterization of Architectured Cement-based Materials via X-ray Micro-Computed Tomography. 176. Paper presented at 1st RILEM International Conference on Concrete and Digital Fabrication, Zurich, Switzerland. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-99519-9_16
Moini, Mohamadreza ; Olek, Jan ; Magee, Bryan ; Youngblood, Jeffrey ; Zavattieri, Pablo. / Additive Manufacturing and Characterization of Architectured Cement-based Materials via X-ray Micro-Computed Tomography. Paper presented at 1st RILEM International Conference on Concrete and Digital Fabrication, Zurich, Switzerland.189 p.
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Moini, M, Olek, J, Magee, B, Youngblood, J & Zavattieri, P 2018, 'Additive Manufacturing and Characterization of Architectured Cement-based Materials via X-ray Micro-Computed Tomography' Paper presented at 1st RILEM International Conference on Concrete and Digital Fabrication, Zurich, Switzerland, 10/09/18 - 12/09/18, pp. 176. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-99519-9_16

Additive Manufacturing and Characterization of Architectured Cement-based Materials via X-ray Micro-Computed Tomography. / Moini, Mohamadreza; Olek, Jan; Magee, Bryan; Youngblood, Jeffrey; Zavattieri, Pablo.

2018. 176 Paper presented at 1st RILEM International Conference on Concrete and Digital Fabrication, Zurich, Switzerland.

Research output: Contribution to conferencePaper

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AU - Moini, Mohamadreza

AU - Olek, Jan

AU - Magee, Bryan

AU - Youngblood, Jeffrey

AU - Zavattieri, Pablo

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N2 - There is an increasing interest in the fabrication of cement-based ma-terials via additive manufacturing (AM) techniques. However, the processing-induced heterogeneities and interfaces represent a major challenge. The role of processing in creating interfaces and their characteristics requires understanding of the microstructure of 3D-printed hardened cement paste (hcp). This work in-vestigates the microstructural features of architectured cement-based materials, including processing-induced heterogeneous patterns, interfacial regions (IRs), and pore network distributions with respect to the architectural pattern. A 3D printer was modified and merged with an extrusion system and specimens were 3D-printed using a layer-wise direct ink writing (DIW) process capable of fabri-cation of ‘lamellar' architectures of materials. A lab-based X-ray microscope (XRM) was used to perform X-ray micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) evaluations to explore the microstructural characteristics of 3-day old intact (i.e. not tested) 3D printed and cast specimens at two levels of magnification: 0.4X and 4X. CT scans of printed specimen revealed a patterned pore network and several microstructural features, including: a) macropores (visible during print-ing), b) micropores at interfacial regions (IRs), c) accumulation of anhydrous ce-ment particles near macropores, and d) rearrangement of filaments away from their designed toolpath. In comparison, microstructural investigation of cast spec-imen at 4X scan revealed randomly distributed pores with no connectivity throughout the specimen. The aptitude of micro-CT as a non-destructive tech-nique for microstructural characterization of architectured cement-based materi-als is discussed. The role of processing to induce and to pattern heterogeneities such as IRs in materials is demonstrated and the role of architecture in controlling such heterogeneities and their directionality through the interface is discussed.

AB - There is an increasing interest in the fabrication of cement-based ma-terials via additive manufacturing (AM) techniques. However, the processing-induced heterogeneities and interfaces represent a major challenge. The role of processing in creating interfaces and their characteristics requires understanding of the microstructure of 3D-printed hardened cement paste (hcp). This work in-vestigates the microstructural features of architectured cement-based materials, including processing-induced heterogeneous patterns, interfacial regions (IRs), and pore network distributions with respect to the architectural pattern. A 3D printer was modified and merged with an extrusion system and specimens were 3D-printed using a layer-wise direct ink writing (DIW) process capable of fabri-cation of ‘lamellar' architectures of materials. A lab-based X-ray microscope (XRM) was used to perform X-ray micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) evaluations to explore the microstructural characteristics of 3-day old intact (i.e. not tested) 3D printed and cast specimens at two levels of magnification: 0.4X and 4X. CT scans of printed specimen revealed a patterned pore network and several microstructural features, including: a) macropores (visible during print-ing), b) micropores at interfacial regions (IRs), c) accumulation of anhydrous ce-ment particles near macropores, and d) rearrangement of filaments away from their designed toolpath. In comparison, microstructural investigation of cast spec-imen at 4X scan revealed randomly distributed pores with no connectivity throughout the specimen. The aptitude of micro-CT as a non-destructive tech-nique for microstructural characterization of architectured cement-based materi-als is discussed. The role of processing to induce and to pattern heterogeneities such as IRs in materials is demonstrated and the role of architecture in controlling such heterogeneities and their directionality through the interface is discussed.

KW - 3D-printing

KW - Cement paste

KW - Micro-CT

KW - Interfacial Region (IR)

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Moini M, Olek J, Magee B, Youngblood J, Zavattieri P. Additive Manufacturing and Characterization of Architectured Cement-based Materials via X-ray Micro-Computed Tomography. 2018. Paper presented at 1st RILEM International Conference on Concrete and Digital Fabrication, Zurich, Switzerland. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-99519-9_16