Accuracy and stability of accommodation and vergence responses during sustained near tasks in uncorrected hyperopes

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This study investigated the accuracy and stability of accommodative and vergence functions in children with and without hyperopia while engaged in two sustained near tasks. The sustained accommodative and vergence characteristics of participants without refractive correction (n = 92, aged 5–10 years) with and without hyperopia (defined as cycloplegic retinoscopy ≥ + 1.00D and less than + 5.00D) were measured using eccentric infrared photorefraction (PowerRef 3; PlusOptix, Germany). Binocular measures of accommodation and eye position were recorded while participants engaged in 2 tasks at 25 cm for 15 min each: (1) reading small print on an Amazon Kindle and (2) watching an animated movie on liquid crystal display screen. Comprehensive visual assessment, including measurement of presenting visual acuity, amplitude of accommodation, and stereoacuity was conducted. The magnitude of accommodative and vergence responses was not related to refractive error (P > 0.05). However, there were inter-task differences in the accuracy and stability of the accommodative responses across refractive groups (P < 0.05). The relationship between accommodation and vergence was not significant in both tasks (P > 0.05). However, increased accommodative and vergence instabilities were associated with total accommodative response (P < 0.05). Despite having greater accommodative demand, uncorrected hyperopes accommodate comparably to emmetropic controls. However, uncorrected hyperopes have increased instabilities in their accommodative and vergence responses, which may adversely impact their visual experience.
Original languageEnglish
Article number14389
Pages (from-to)1-11
Number of pages12
JournalScientific Reports
Issue number1
Early online date1 Sept 2023
Publication statusPublished online - 1 Sept 2023

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
The authors thank all the participants and their parents, as well as teachers for taking part in the study. The study was supported by the Vice-Chancellor’s Research Scholarship, Ulster University, Coleraine, UK.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023, Springer Nature Limited.


  • Refractive errors
  • Vision disorders


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