Accessible theatre-making for spectators with visual impairment: Cahoots NI's The Gift.

Research output: Book/ReportCommissioned report

Abstract

This report, completed by Tom Maguire on behalf of CAHOOTS NI, was commissioned to document and assess the ways in which the production, The Gift, would be able to provide an experience of a theatrical performance for spectators with visual impairment in which they would be fully integrated with sighted spectators. The project identified and through a variety of strategies and number of stages of development attempted to address a number of issues. The principles of universal design were adopted from the outset to overcome the barriers to full access within an integrated experience. Evaluating the effectiveness of these strategies was constrained by the limited funding to support an in-depth reception study. There were further limits on the capacity to access child spectators individually and within groups, without repeating in the research process the very discrimination between sighted spectators and those with visual impairment that the project aimed to overcome. There were also some negative impacts on the aesthetic experience of the production for sighted spectators that were neither intended nor expected. Nonetheless, it is clear that there are a number of ways in which the processes used within this production might be adopted by or adapted for any new performance, provided that they are built-in from the outset.
LanguageEnglish
Number of pages23
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 31 Mar 2015

Fingerprint

Gift
Impairment
Spectator
Reception Studies
Aesthetic Experience
Universal Design
Funding

Keywords

  • TYA
  • inclusion strategies
  • universal design
  • visual impairment

Cite this

@book{17c0ac50236b48d8ac2e30a3d1b8c9c9,
title = "Accessible theatre-making for spectators with visual impairment: Cahoots NI's The Gift.",
abstract = "This report, completed by Tom Maguire on behalf of CAHOOTS NI, was commissioned to document and assess the ways in which the production, The Gift, would be able to provide an experience of a theatrical performance for spectators with visual impairment in which they would be fully integrated with sighted spectators. The project identified and through a variety of strategies and number of stages of development attempted to address a number of issues. The principles of universal design were adopted from the outset to overcome the barriers to full access within an integrated experience. Evaluating the effectiveness of these strategies was constrained by the limited funding to support an in-depth reception study. There were further limits on the capacity to access child spectators individually and within groups, without repeating in the research process the very discrimination between sighted spectators and those with visual impairment that the project aimed to overcome. There were also some negative impacts on the aesthetic experience of the production for sighted spectators that were neither intended nor expected. Nonetheless, it is clear that there are a number of ways in which the processes used within this production might be adopted by or adapted for any new performance, provided that they are built-in from the outset.",
keywords = "TYA, inclusion strategies, universal design, visual impairment",
author = "Tom Maguire",
note = "Reference text: Anvik, C. H. (2009). 'Embodied spaces in the making: visually impaired people, bodies and surroundings.' Scandinavian Journal of Disability Research, 11:2, 145-157 Blind Theater Project (2010) The Blind Theater - 5 manifests for the female sensuality [online]. Available: https://blindtheater.wordpress.com/2010/09/12/the-blind-theatre-5-manifests-for-the-female-sensuality/. Accessed 12 December 2014. Bolt, D. (2005). 'From blindness to visual impairment: terminological typology and the Social Model of Disability.' Disability & Society, 20:5, 539-552, Chion, M. (1994). Audio-Vision: Sound on Screen. New York: Columbia University Press. Coyle, J. (2015) 'The Gift (Review).' CultureNI [online]. Available: http://www.culturenorthernireland.org/reviews/performing-arts/gift. Accessed 18 March 2015 Cutler, S. (2013). 'Accessing the theatre.' Action for Blind People, 22 April. Available at: https://www.actionforblindpeople.org.uk/your-community/blogs/steph-cutler/accessing-the-theatre/. Accessed: 2 December 2014. Davis, P. & Hopwood, V. (2002). 'Inclusion for children with visual impairment in the mainstream primary classroom.' Education 3-13: International Journal of Primary, Elementary and Early Years Education, 30:1, 41-46 Douglas, G., Pavey, S., Corcoran, C. and Clements, B. (2012). Evaluating the use of the ICF as a framework for interviewing people with a visual impairment about their mobility and travel. British Journal of Visual Impairment, 30(1): 6–21. Duckett, P.S. & Pratt, R. (2001). 'The Researched Opinions on Research: Visually impaired people and visual impairment research,' Disability & Society, 16:6, 815-835, Eardley, A.F. and Pring, L. (2014). 'Sensory imagery in individuals who are blind and sighted: examining unimodal and multimodal forms.' Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness, 108 (4). p. 323. Frame, M. J. (2004). Blind Spots: The Communicative Performance of Visual Impairment in Relationships and Social Interaction. Springfield, Ill.: Charles C. Thomas Romero-Fresco, P. (2013) 'Accessible filmmaking: Joining the dots between audiovisual translation, accessibility and filmmaking.' JoSTrans 20 [online]. Available: http://www.jostrans.org/issue20/art_romero.php. Accessed 12 January 2015 Fryer, L. (2013a). 'An ecological approach to audio description.' The Psychologist, 26 (6): 458-460. --- (2013b) Putting It Into Words: The Impact of Visual Impairment on Perception, Experience and Presence. Doctoral thesis, Goldsmiths, University of London. [Thesis]: Goldsmiths Research Online. Available at: http://research.gold.ac.uk/10152/. Accessed 3 December 2014 Fryer, L. & Freeman, J. (2012a). 'Presence in those with and without sight: implications for virtual reality and audio description.' Journal of CyberTherapy & Rehabilitation. 5: 15-23. --- (2012b). 'Cinematic language and the description of film: Keeping AD users in the frame.' Perspectives: Studies in Translatology, --- (2013). 'Visual impairment and presence: measuring the effect of audio description. In Proceedings of the 2013 Inputs-Outputs Conference: An Interdisciplinary Conference on Engagement in HCI and Performance (p. 4). ACM. Fryer, L., Freeman, J. & Pring, L. (2013). 'What verbal orientation information do blind and partially sighted people need to find their way around? A study of everyday navigation strategies in people with impaired vision.' British Journal of Visual Impairment 31 (2): 123-138. --- (2013b). 'Audio drama and the imagination: the influence of sound effects on presence in people with and without sight.' Journal of Media Psychology: Theories, Methods, and Applications 25 (2): 65-71. --- (2014). 'Touching words is not enough: How visual experience influences haptic-auditory associations in the {"}Bouba-Kiki{"} effect.' Cognition 132(2): 164-173 Gray, C. (2004) ‘Social Inclusion in a Mainstream setting.’ Curriculum Closeup 17: 12–14. London, RNIB. --- (2008). 'Supporting Children with a Visual Impairment in Northern Ireland: The Role of the Rehabilitation Worker.' British Journal of Visual Impairment, 26:3, 239-254 --- (2009). 'A Qualitatively Different Experience: Mainstreaming Pupils with a Visual Impairment in Northern Ireland.' European Journal of Special Needs Education, 24:2, 169-182 --- (2010). 'Visual impairment: the educational experiences of young people in Northern Ireland.' In Children and young people with sensory impairment. Special edition: Educational & Child Psychology, 27:2, 68-78 Huff, M., Papenmeier, F., & Zacks, J.M. (2012). 'Visual target detection is impaired at event boundaries,' Visual Cognition, 20:7, 848-864 Huure, T.M., Komulainen, E.J. and Aro, H.M. (2001). 'Relationships with parents and friends, self‐esteem and depression among adolescents with visual impairments.' Scandinavian Journal of Disability Research, 3:1, 21-37. Jordanstown School (no date] Jordanstown School [online]. Available: http://www.jordanstownschool.org. Accessed 12 December 2014. Kleege, G. (2014). 'What does dance do, and who says so? Some thoughts on blind access to dance performance.' The British Journal of Visual Impairment 32(1): 7–13 Kupers, R. and Ptito, M. (2011). 'Insights from darkness: what the study of blindness has taught us about brain structure and function.' In Green, Andrea M. et al (eds) Enhancing performance for action and perception: multisensory integration, Neuroplasticity and Neuroprosthetics, Part II. Oxford: Eslevier, 17-32 L{\'o}pez, M. and Pauletto, S. (2009). 'The Design of an Audio Film: Portraying Story, Action and Interaction through Sound.' JMM: The Journal of Music and Meaning, 8, Winter [online] Available: http://www.musicandmeaning.net/issues/showArticle.php?artID=8.2. Accessed 27/11/14 Maszerowska, A., Matamala, A. &, Orero, P. eds (2014). Audio Description: New perspectives illustrated. Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company Mousetrap Theatre Projects (2014) 'Envision.' Mousetrap Theatre Projects. Available at: http://www.mousetrap.org.uk/index.php/special-educational-needs/envision.html. Accessed 2 December 2014. National Theatre (no date a.) 'Facilities for Visually Impaired People.' Royal National Theatre [online]. Available: http://www.nationaltheatre.org.uk/access/facilities-for-visually-impaired-people. Accessed 2 December 2014. --- (no date b.) 'Audio description.' Royal National Theatre [online]. Available: http://www.nationaltheatre.org.uk/video/audio-description. Accessed 2 December 2014. Rai, S. (2011). RNIB International AD Exchange Study. Observations from a focus group study. London: Royal National Institute of Blind People [online]. Available: www.rnib.org.uk/sites/default/files/AD_exchange.doc. Accessed 3 December 2014 Rai, S., Greening, J. and Leen, P. (2010). A Comparative Study of Audio Description Guidelines Prevalent in Different Countries. London: Royal National Institute of Blind People [online]. Available: http://audiodescription.co.uk/uploads/general/RNIB._AD_standards.pdf. Accessed 3 December 2014. Roe, J. (2008). 'Social inclusion: meeting the socio-emotional needs of children with vision needs.' British Journal of Visual Impairment 26(2): 147–158. Romero-Fresco, P., & Fryer, L. (2013). 'Could audio described films benefit from Audio Introductions? An audience response study.' Journal of Visual Impairment and Blindness 107 (4): 287- 285. Schonmann, S. (2006). Theatre as a Medium for Children and Young People: images and observations. Dordrecht: Springer Scottish Opera (no date) 'Audio Description & Touch Tours.' Scottish Opera [online]. Available http://www.scottishopera.org.uk/our-operas/audio-description-touch-tours. Accessed 20 March 2015. Sonnenschein, D. (2001). Sound Design: The Expressive Power of Music, Voice and Sound Effects in Cinema. Studio City, CA: Michael Wise Productions. VocalEyes (2014) Guidelines for Touch Tours [online]. Available: http://vocaleyes.co.uk/core/core_picker/download.asp?id=416&filetitle=Touch+Tour+Guidelines+-+PDF+File. Accessed 14 December 2014.",
year = "2015",
month = "3",
day = "31",
language = "English",

}

Accessible theatre-making for spectators with visual impairment: Cahoots NI's The Gift. / Maguire, Tom.

2015. 23 p.

Research output: Book/ReportCommissioned report

TY - BOOK

T1 - Accessible theatre-making for spectators with visual impairment: Cahoots NI's The Gift.

AU - Maguire, Tom

N1 - Reference text: Anvik, C. H. (2009). 'Embodied spaces in the making: visually impaired people, bodies and surroundings.' Scandinavian Journal of Disability Research, 11:2, 145-157 Blind Theater Project (2010) The Blind Theater - 5 manifests for the female sensuality [online]. Available: https://blindtheater.wordpress.com/2010/09/12/the-blind-theatre-5-manifests-for-the-female-sensuality/. Accessed 12 December 2014. Bolt, D. (2005). 'From blindness to visual impairment: terminological typology and the Social Model of Disability.' Disability & Society, 20:5, 539-552, Chion, M. (1994). Audio-Vision: Sound on Screen. New York: Columbia University Press. Coyle, J. (2015) 'The Gift (Review).' CultureNI [online]. Available: http://www.culturenorthernireland.org/reviews/performing-arts/gift. Accessed 18 March 2015 Cutler, S. (2013). 'Accessing the theatre.' Action for Blind People, 22 April. Available at: https://www.actionforblindpeople.org.uk/your-community/blogs/steph-cutler/accessing-the-theatre/. Accessed: 2 December 2014. Davis, P. & Hopwood, V. (2002). 'Inclusion for children with visual impairment in the mainstream primary classroom.' Education 3-13: International Journal of Primary, Elementary and Early Years Education, 30:1, 41-46 Douglas, G., Pavey, S., Corcoran, C. and Clements, B. (2012). Evaluating the use of the ICF as a framework for interviewing people with a visual impairment about their mobility and travel. British Journal of Visual Impairment, 30(1): 6–21. Duckett, P.S. & Pratt, R. (2001). 'The Researched Opinions on Research: Visually impaired people and visual impairment research,' Disability & Society, 16:6, 815-835, Eardley, A.F. and Pring, L. (2014). 'Sensory imagery in individuals who are blind and sighted: examining unimodal and multimodal forms.' Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness, 108 (4). p. 323. Frame, M. J. (2004). Blind Spots: The Communicative Performance of Visual Impairment in Relationships and Social Interaction. Springfield, Ill.: Charles C. Thomas Romero-Fresco, P. (2013) 'Accessible filmmaking: Joining the dots between audiovisual translation, accessibility and filmmaking.' JoSTrans 20 [online]. Available: http://www.jostrans.org/issue20/art_romero.php. Accessed 12 January 2015 Fryer, L. (2013a). 'An ecological approach to audio description.' The Psychologist, 26 (6): 458-460. --- (2013b) Putting It Into Words: The Impact of Visual Impairment on Perception, Experience and Presence. Doctoral thesis, Goldsmiths, University of London. [Thesis]: Goldsmiths Research Online. Available at: http://research.gold.ac.uk/10152/. Accessed 3 December 2014 Fryer, L. & Freeman, J. (2012a). 'Presence in those with and without sight: implications for virtual reality and audio description.' Journal of CyberTherapy & Rehabilitation. 5: 15-23. --- (2012b). 'Cinematic language and the description of film: Keeping AD users in the frame.' Perspectives: Studies in Translatology, --- (2013). 'Visual impairment and presence: measuring the effect of audio description. In Proceedings of the 2013 Inputs-Outputs Conference: An Interdisciplinary Conference on Engagement in HCI and Performance (p. 4). ACM. Fryer, L., Freeman, J. & Pring, L. (2013). 'What verbal orientation information do blind and partially sighted people need to find their way around? A study of everyday navigation strategies in people with impaired vision.' British Journal of Visual Impairment 31 (2): 123-138. --- (2013b). 'Audio drama and the imagination: the influence of sound effects on presence in people with and without sight.' Journal of Media Psychology: Theories, Methods, and Applications 25 (2): 65-71. --- (2014). 'Touching words is not enough: How visual experience influences haptic-auditory associations in the "Bouba-Kiki" effect.' Cognition 132(2): 164-173 Gray, C. (2004) ‘Social Inclusion in a Mainstream setting.’ Curriculum Closeup 17: 12–14. London, RNIB. --- (2008). 'Supporting Children with a Visual Impairment in Northern Ireland: The Role of the Rehabilitation Worker.' British Journal of Visual Impairment, 26:3, 239-254 --- (2009). 'A Qualitatively Different Experience: Mainstreaming Pupils with a Visual Impairment in Northern Ireland.' European Journal of Special Needs Education, 24:2, 169-182 --- (2010). 'Visual impairment: the educational experiences of young people in Northern Ireland.' In Children and young people with sensory impairment. Special edition: Educational & Child Psychology, 27:2, 68-78 Huff, M., Papenmeier, F., & Zacks, J.M. (2012). 'Visual target detection is impaired at event boundaries,' Visual Cognition, 20:7, 848-864 Huure, T.M., Komulainen, E.J. and Aro, H.M. (2001). 'Relationships with parents and friends, self‐esteem and depression among adolescents with visual impairments.' Scandinavian Journal of Disability Research, 3:1, 21-37. Jordanstown School (no date] Jordanstown School [online]. Available: http://www.jordanstownschool.org. Accessed 12 December 2014. Kleege, G. (2014). 'What does dance do, and who says so? Some thoughts on blind access to dance performance.' The British Journal of Visual Impairment 32(1): 7–13 Kupers, R. and Ptito, M. (2011). 'Insights from darkness: what the study of blindness has taught us about brain structure and function.' In Green, Andrea M. et al (eds) Enhancing performance for action and perception: multisensory integration, Neuroplasticity and Neuroprosthetics, Part II. Oxford: Eslevier, 17-32 López, M. and Pauletto, S. (2009). 'The Design of an Audio Film: Portraying Story, Action and Interaction through Sound.' JMM: The Journal of Music and Meaning, 8, Winter [online] Available: http://www.musicandmeaning.net/issues/showArticle.php?artID=8.2. Accessed 27/11/14 Maszerowska, A., Matamala, A. &, Orero, P. eds (2014). Audio Description: New perspectives illustrated. Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company Mousetrap Theatre Projects (2014) 'Envision.' Mousetrap Theatre Projects. Available at: http://www.mousetrap.org.uk/index.php/special-educational-needs/envision.html. Accessed 2 December 2014. National Theatre (no date a.) 'Facilities for Visually Impaired People.' Royal National Theatre [online]. Available: http://www.nationaltheatre.org.uk/access/facilities-for-visually-impaired-people. Accessed 2 December 2014. --- (no date b.) 'Audio description.' Royal National Theatre [online]. Available: http://www.nationaltheatre.org.uk/video/audio-description. Accessed 2 December 2014. Rai, S. (2011). RNIB International AD Exchange Study. Observations from a focus group study. London: Royal National Institute of Blind People [online]. Available: www.rnib.org.uk/sites/default/files/AD_exchange.doc. Accessed 3 December 2014 Rai, S., Greening, J. and Leen, P. (2010). A Comparative Study of Audio Description Guidelines Prevalent in Different Countries. London: Royal National Institute of Blind People [online]. Available: http://audiodescription.co.uk/uploads/general/RNIB._AD_standards.pdf. Accessed 3 December 2014. Roe, J. (2008). 'Social inclusion: meeting the socio-emotional needs of children with vision needs.' British Journal of Visual Impairment 26(2): 147–158. Romero-Fresco, P., & Fryer, L. (2013). 'Could audio described films benefit from Audio Introductions? An audience response study.' Journal of Visual Impairment and Blindness 107 (4): 287- 285. Schonmann, S. (2006). Theatre as a Medium for Children and Young People: images and observations. Dordrecht: Springer Scottish Opera (no date) 'Audio Description & Touch Tours.' Scottish Opera [online]. Available http://www.scottishopera.org.uk/our-operas/audio-description-touch-tours. Accessed 20 March 2015. Sonnenschein, D. (2001). Sound Design: The Expressive Power of Music, Voice and Sound Effects in Cinema. Studio City, CA: Michael Wise Productions. VocalEyes (2014) Guidelines for Touch Tours [online]. Available: http://vocaleyes.co.uk/core/core_picker/download.asp?id=416&filetitle=Touch+Tour+Guidelines+-+PDF+File. Accessed 14 December 2014.

PY - 2015/3/31

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N2 - This report, completed by Tom Maguire on behalf of CAHOOTS NI, was commissioned to document and assess the ways in which the production, The Gift, would be able to provide an experience of a theatrical performance for spectators with visual impairment in which they would be fully integrated with sighted spectators. The project identified and through a variety of strategies and number of stages of development attempted to address a number of issues. The principles of universal design were adopted from the outset to overcome the barriers to full access within an integrated experience. Evaluating the effectiveness of these strategies was constrained by the limited funding to support an in-depth reception study. There were further limits on the capacity to access child spectators individually and within groups, without repeating in the research process the very discrimination between sighted spectators and those with visual impairment that the project aimed to overcome. There were also some negative impacts on the aesthetic experience of the production for sighted spectators that were neither intended nor expected. Nonetheless, it is clear that there are a number of ways in which the processes used within this production might be adopted by or adapted for any new performance, provided that they are built-in from the outset.

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