A Technical and Economic Analysis of Large Scale Biomass Combustion

D McIlveen-Wright, Ye Huang, S Rezvani, A Ghayur, David A.G. Redpath, Ashok Dave, Neil Hewitt

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Abstract

Large scale power plants have not been considered in the past for several reasons e.g. fossil fuels have higher energy density, the previous low cost of fossil fuels, the availability of the required amounts of biomass and the cost of biomass transportation. However, the impending scarcity of fossil fuels and their increased price, as well as environmental concerns, have led to renewed interest in the use of biomass for power generation. Many power plant operators have been encouraged by subventions to test cofiring of biomass with coal, which has often proved lucrative with little reduction in generation efficiency or significant impact on capital cost, and this, in turn, has increased familiarity with the characteristics of biomass, its handling, diminution, drying, storage and use at power plants and the details of its supply chain.One example of this increase in interest in biomass is the 350 MWe CFBC power plant at Port Talbot in Wales, and another example of a large biomass power plant is the 44 MWe Bubbling Fluidised Bed system at Steven’s Croft, Lockerbie in Scotland. The technical, environmental and economic analysis of such technologies, using the ECLIPSE suite of process simulation software, is the subject of this study. The models are based on publicly-available data from the previously mentioned plants, but are not intended to replicate them. System efficiencies for generating electricity and CO2 emissions are evaluated and compared with a large coal-fired CFBC plant and a typical supercritical PF power plant. The specific investment (SI) and break-even electricity selling price (BESP) for each system were calculated and compared with the coal-fired plants. The sensitivity of the economics of both large power plants to such factors as fuel cost, load factor and insurance, operational and maintenance costs for two discount cash flow rates was investigated. The BESP for the two biomass plants modeled were found to be competitive with the coal-fired plants at low wood costs, even without any subventions.
LanguageEnglish
Title of host publicationUnknown Host Publication
Place of PublicationFlorence
Pages1319- 1327
Number of pages9
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 14 Oct 2011
Event19th European Biomass Conference and Exhibition - Berlin, Germany
Duration: 14 Oct 2011 → …

Conference

Conference19th European Biomass Conference and Exhibition
Period14/10/11 → …

Fingerprint

Economic analysis
Biomass
Power plants
Fossil fuels
Coal
Costs
Electricity
Sales
Insurance
Supply chains
Power generation
Wood
Drying
Flow rate
Availability
Economics

Keywords

  • fluidized bed
  • modelling
  • power generation
  • economic aspects

Cite this

McIlveen-Wright, D., Huang, Y., Rezvani, S., Ghayur, A., Redpath, D. A. G., Dave, A., & Hewitt, N. (2011). A Technical and Economic Analysis of Large Scale Biomass Combustion. In Unknown Host Publication (pp. 1319- 1327). Florence. https://doi.org/10.5071/19thEUBCE2011-VP2.2.1
McIlveen-Wright, D ; Huang, Ye ; Rezvani, S ; Ghayur, A ; Redpath, David A.G. ; Dave, Ashok ; Hewitt, Neil. / A Technical and Economic Analysis of Large Scale Biomass Combustion. Unknown Host Publication. Florence, 2011. pp. 1319- 1327
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title = "A Technical and Economic Analysis of Large Scale Biomass Combustion",
abstract = "Large scale power plants have not been considered in the past for several reasons e.g. fossil fuels have higher energy density, the previous low cost of fossil fuels, the availability of the required amounts of biomass and the cost of biomass transportation. However, the impending scarcity of fossil fuels and their increased price, as well as environmental concerns, have led to renewed interest in the use of biomass for power generation. Many power plant operators have been encouraged by subventions to test cofiring of biomass with coal, which has often proved lucrative with little reduction in generation efficiency or significant impact on capital cost, and this, in turn, has increased familiarity with the characteristics of biomass, its handling, diminution, drying, storage and use at power plants and the details of its supply chain.One example of this increase in interest in biomass is the 350 MWe CFBC power plant at Port Talbot in Wales, and another example of a large biomass power plant is the 44 MWe Bubbling Fluidised Bed system at Steven’s Croft, Lockerbie in Scotland. The technical, environmental and economic analysis of such technologies, using the ECLIPSE suite of process simulation software, is the subject of this study. The models are based on publicly-available data from the previously mentioned plants, but are not intended to replicate them. System efficiencies for generating electricity and CO2 emissions are evaluated and compared with a large coal-fired CFBC plant and a typical supercritical PF power plant. The specific investment (SI) and break-even electricity selling price (BESP) for each system were calculated and compared with the coal-fired plants. The sensitivity of the economics of both large power plants to such factors as fuel cost, load factor and insurance, operational and maintenance costs for two discount cash flow rates was investigated. The BESP for the two biomass plants modeled were found to be competitive with the coal-fired plants at low wood costs, even without any subventions.",
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note = "Reference text: [1] McIlveen-Wright, D.R., B.C. Williams, and J.T. McMullan, A re-appraisal of wood-fired combustion. Bioresource Technology, 2001. 76(3): p. 183-190. [2] Thornley, P., Increasing biomass based power generation in the UK. Energy Policy, 2006. 34(15): p. 2087-2099. [3] Thornley, P., J. Rogers, and Y. Huang, Quantification of employment from biomass power plants. Renewable Energy, 2008. 33(8): p. 1922-1927. [4] McIlveen-Wright, D.R., et al., A technical and environmental analysis of co-combustion of coal and biomass in fluidised bed technologies. Fuel, 2007. 86(14): p. 2032-2042. [5] De, S. and M. Assadi, Impact of cofiring biomass with coal in power plants - A techno-economic assessment. Biomass and Bioenergy, 2009. 33(2): p. 283-293. [6] McIlveen-Wright, D.R., et al., A Techno-economic assessment of the reduction of carbon dioxide emissions through the use of biomass co-combustion. Fuel, 2011. 90(1): p. 11-18. [7] Ofgem. Renewables Obligation. 2011 03/06/11]; Available from: http://www.ofgem.gov.uk/Sustainability/Environment/RenewablObl/Pages/RenewablObl.aspx. [8] DECC, D.o.E.a.C.C. Renewable Heat Incentive (RHI) Scheme. 2011 03/06/2011]; Available from: http://www.decc.gov.uk/en/content/cms/what_we_do/uk_supply/energy_mix/renewable/policy/incentive/incentive.aspx. [9] Khan, A.A., et al., Biomass combustion in fluidized bed boilers: Potential problems and remedies. Fuel Processing Technology, 2009. 90(1): p. 21-50. [10] Anon., Stevens Croft Wood Burning Plant, Lockerbie, Scotland, United Kingdom. Available from: http://www.power-technology.com/projects/stevenscroftbiomass/. [11] Williams, B.C. and J.T. McMullan, Techno-economic analysis of fuel conversion and power generation systems - the development of a portable chemical process simulator with capital cost and economic performance analysis capabilities International Journal of Energy Research, 1996. 20: p. 125-142. [12] McIlveen-Wright, D.R., J.T. McMullan, and D.J. Guiney, Wood-fired fuel cells in selected buildings. Journal of Power Sources, 2003. 118(1-2): p. 393-404. [13] Rajaram, S., Next generation CFBC. Chemical Engineering Science, 1999. 54(22): p. 5565-5571. [14] Jacquet L, et al., Scaling up of CFB boilers the 250 MWe GARDANNE CFB project., in Proceedings of the American Power Conference. 1994. p. 930-936. [15] Anon., Cost and performance baseline for fossil energy plants, N.E.T.L. (NETL), Editor. 2007. [16] Anon., Non-technical Summary of the Port Talbot Biomass Power Plant. Available from: http://www.prenergypower.com/nontechnicalsummary.pdf [Accessed 12/10/10].",
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McIlveen-Wright, D, Huang, Y, Rezvani, S, Ghayur, A, Redpath, DAG, Dave, A & Hewitt, N 2011, A Technical and Economic Analysis of Large Scale Biomass Combustion. in Unknown Host Publication. Florence, pp. 1319- 1327, 19th European Biomass Conference and Exhibition, 14/10/11. https://doi.org/10.5071/19thEUBCE2011-VP2.2.1

A Technical and Economic Analysis of Large Scale Biomass Combustion. / McIlveen-Wright, D; Huang, Ye; Rezvani, S; Ghayur, A; Redpath, David A.G.; Dave, Ashok; Hewitt, Neil.

Unknown Host Publication. Florence, 2011. p. 1319- 1327.

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

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AU - Rezvani, S

AU - Ghayur, A

AU - Redpath, David A.G.

AU - Dave, Ashok

AU - Hewitt, Neil

N1 - Reference text: [1] McIlveen-Wright, D.R., B.C. Williams, and J.T. McMullan, A re-appraisal of wood-fired combustion. Bioresource Technology, 2001. 76(3): p. 183-190. [2] Thornley, P., Increasing biomass based power generation in the UK. Energy Policy, 2006. 34(15): p. 2087-2099. [3] Thornley, P., J. Rogers, and Y. Huang, Quantification of employment from biomass power plants. Renewable Energy, 2008. 33(8): p. 1922-1927. [4] McIlveen-Wright, D.R., et al., A technical and environmental analysis of co-combustion of coal and biomass in fluidised bed technologies. Fuel, 2007. 86(14): p. 2032-2042. [5] De, S. and M. Assadi, Impact of cofiring biomass with coal in power plants - A techno-economic assessment. Biomass and Bioenergy, 2009. 33(2): p. 283-293. [6] McIlveen-Wright, D.R., et al., A Techno-economic assessment of the reduction of carbon dioxide emissions through the use of biomass co-combustion. Fuel, 2011. 90(1): p. 11-18. [7] Ofgem. Renewables Obligation. 2011 03/06/11]; Available from: http://www.ofgem.gov.uk/Sustainability/Environment/RenewablObl/Pages/RenewablObl.aspx. [8] DECC, D.o.E.a.C.C. Renewable Heat Incentive (RHI) Scheme. 2011 03/06/2011]; Available from: http://www.decc.gov.uk/en/content/cms/what_we_do/uk_supply/energy_mix/renewable/policy/incentive/incentive.aspx. [9] Khan, A.A., et al., Biomass combustion in fluidized bed boilers: Potential problems and remedies. Fuel Processing Technology, 2009. 90(1): p. 21-50. [10] Anon., Stevens Croft Wood Burning Plant, Lockerbie, Scotland, United Kingdom. Available from: http://www.power-technology.com/projects/stevenscroftbiomass/. [11] Williams, B.C. and J.T. McMullan, Techno-economic analysis of fuel conversion and power generation systems - the development of a portable chemical process simulator with capital cost and economic performance analysis capabilities International Journal of Energy Research, 1996. 20: p. 125-142. [12] McIlveen-Wright, D.R., J.T. McMullan, and D.J. Guiney, Wood-fired fuel cells in selected buildings. Journal of Power Sources, 2003. 118(1-2): p. 393-404. [13] Rajaram, S., Next generation CFBC. Chemical Engineering Science, 1999. 54(22): p. 5565-5571. [14] Jacquet L, et al., Scaling up of CFB boilers the 250 MWe GARDANNE CFB project., in Proceedings of the American Power Conference. 1994. p. 930-936. [15] Anon., Cost and performance baseline for fossil energy plants, N.E.T.L. (NETL), Editor. 2007. [16] Anon., Non-technical Summary of the Port Talbot Biomass Power Plant. Available from: http://www.prenergypower.com/nontechnicalsummary.pdf [Accessed 12/10/10].

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N2 - Large scale power plants have not been considered in the past for several reasons e.g. fossil fuels have higher energy density, the previous low cost of fossil fuels, the availability of the required amounts of biomass and the cost of biomass transportation. However, the impending scarcity of fossil fuels and their increased price, as well as environmental concerns, have led to renewed interest in the use of biomass for power generation. Many power plant operators have been encouraged by subventions to test cofiring of biomass with coal, which has often proved lucrative with little reduction in generation efficiency or significant impact on capital cost, and this, in turn, has increased familiarity with the characteristics of biomass, its handling, diminution, drying, storage and use at power plants and the details of its supply chain.One example of this increase in interest in biomass is the 350 MWe CFBC power plant at Port Talbot in Wales, and another example of a large biomass power plant is the 44 MWe Bubbling Fluidised Bed system at Steven’s Croft, Lockerbie in Scotland. The technical, environmental and economic analysis of such technologies, using the ECLIPSE suite of process simulation software, is the subject of this study. The models are based on publicly-available data from the previously mentioned plants, but are not intended to replicate them. System efficiencies for generating electricity and CO2 emissions are evaluated and compared with a large coal-fired CFBC plant and a typical supercritical PF power plant. The specific investment (SI) and break-even electricity selling price (BESP) for each system were calculated and compared with the coal-fired plants. The sensitivity of the economics of both large power plants to such factors as fuel cost, load factor and insurance, operational and maintenance costs for two discount cash flow rates was investigated. The BESP for the two biomass plants modeled were found to be competitive with the coal-fired plants at low wood costs, even without any subventions.

AB - Large scale power plants have not been considered in the past for several reasons e.g. fossil fuels have higher energy density, the previous low cost of fossil fuels, the availability of the required amounts of biomass and the cost of biomass transportation. However, the impending scarcity of fossil fuels and their increased price, as well as environmental concerns, have led to renewed interest in the use of biomass for power generation. Many power plant operators have been encouraged by subventions to test cofiring of biomass with coal, which has often proved lucrative with little reduction in generation efficiency or significant impact on capital cost, and this, in turn, has increased familiarity with the characteristics of biomass, its handling, diminution, drying, storage and use at power plants and the details of its supply chain.One example of this increase in interest in biomass is the 350 MWe CFBC power plant at Port Talbot in Wales, and another example of a large biomass power plant is the 44 MWe Bubbling Fluidised Bed system at Steven’s Croft, Lockerbie in Scotland. The technical, environmental and economic analysis of such technologies, using the ECLIPSE suite of process simulation software, is the subject of this study. The models are based on publicly-available data from the previously mentioned plants, but are not intended to replicate them. System efficiencies for generating electricity and CO2 emissions are evaluated and compared with a large coal-fired CFBC plant and a typical supercritical PF power plant. The specific investment (SI) and break-even electricity selling price (BESP) for each system were calculated and compared with the coal-fired plants. The sensitivity of the economics of both large power plants to such factors as fuel cost, load factor and insurance, operational and maintenance costs for two discount cash flow rates was investigated. The BESP for the two biomass plants modeled were found to be competitive with the coal-fired plants at low wood costs, even without any subventions.

KW - fluidized bed

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KW - economic aspects

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BT - Unknown Host Publication

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ER -

McIlveen-Wright D, Huang Y, Rezvani S, Ghayur A, Redpath DAG, Dave A et al. A Technical and Economic Analysis of Large Scale Biomass Combustion. In Unknown Host Publication. Florence. 2011. p. 1319- 1327 https://doi.org/10.5071/19thEUBCE2011-VP2.2.1