A systematic review of the evidence for the provision of walking frames for older people

Margaret O' Hare, Shona Pryde, Jacqueline Gracey

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

8 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: The purpose of this paper is to systematically review the evidence for the provision of walkingframes to improve mobility for older people.Objectives: To investigate the types of frames used and the processes involved in prescribing frames, andto determine the effects of using a frame.Methods: The AMED, CINAHL, Embase, and MEDLINE Electronic databases were searched using keyterms between 1990 and January 2011. Research papers reporting outcomes about the effectiveness ofwalking frames in relation to mobility for older people were eligible for inclusion. Sixteen papers wereincluded under the criteria applied, representing 17% of the studies identified. A range of study designswas included. Double-blind review was carried out and quality assessment conducted using CASP criticalappraisal tools. Synthesis of literature was carried out on a narrative basis through the development ofthemes in relation to types of frames, user’s perspective, falls prevention, effects on gait and balance, andphysiological effects.Results: The evidence reviewed is largely of poor quality. Users obtain walking frames from many sources.The evidence reviewed neither proves nor disproves their effectiveness in the prevention of falls. Walkingframe use does have an effect on gait patterns and some physiological outcomes. The effect on postureand balance remains unclear.Conclusions: A need for clinical guidelines in relation to provision of walking frames has been identified. Thetherapeutic use of walking frames to improve physical fitness merits further research as well as longer-termstudies to evaluate the effects over time.
LanguageEnglish
Pages11-23
JournalPhysical Therapy Reviews
Volume18
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 24 Feb 2013

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Walking
Gait
Physical Fitness
Research
MEDLINE
Databases
Guidelines

Keywords

  • Walking frames
  • Aging
  • Rehabilitation

Cite this

@article{95700c16e9324a49ae7b19537e69204a,
title = "A systematic review of the evidence for the provision of walking frames for older people",
abstract = "Background: The purpose of this paper is to systematically review the evidence for the provision of walkingframes to improve mobility for older people.Objectives: To investigate the types of frames used and the processes involved in prescribing frames, andto determine the effects of using a frame.Methods: The AMED, CINAHL, Embase, and MEDLINE Electronic databases were searched using keyterms between 1990 and January 2011. Research papers reporting outcomes about the effectiveness ofwalking frames in relation to mobility for older people were eligible for inclusion. Sixteen papers wereincluded under the criteria applied, representing 17{\%} of the studies identified. A range of study designswas included. Double-blind review was carried out and quality assessment conducted using CASP criticalappraisal tools. Synthesis of literature was carried out on a narrative basis through the development ofthemes in relation to types of frames, user’s perspective, falls prevention, effects on gait and balance, andphysiological effects.Results: The evidence reviewed is largely of poor quality. Users obtain walking frames from many sources.The evidence reviewed neither proves nor disproves their effectiveness in the prevention of falls. Walkingframe use does have an effect on gait patterns and some physiological outcomes. The effect on postureand balance remains unclear.Conclusions: A need for clinical guidelines in relation to provision of walking frames has been identified. Thetherapeutic use of walking frames to improve physical fitness merits further research as well as longer-termstudies to evaluate the effects over time.",
keywords = "Walking frames, Aging, Rehabilitation",
author = "{O' Hare}, Margaret and Shona Pryde and Jacqueline Gracey",
note = "Reference text: Close J. Prevention of falls in older people. Disabil Rehabil. 2005;27:1061–71. 2 Gillespie LD, Robertson MC, Gillespie WJ, Lamb SE, Gates S, Cummings RG, et al. Interventions for preventing falls in older people living in the community. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2009:(2);CD007416. 3 Tinetti ME, Baker DI, McAvay G, Claus EB, Garrett P, Loch ML, et al. A multi-factorial intervention to reduce the risk of falling among elderly people living in the community. Boston Med Surg J. 1994;331:821–7. 4 WHO strategy document. A strategy for active healthy ageing and old age care in the Eastern MediterraneanRegion. Available from: www.emro.who.int/dsal dsa543.pdf (Accessed 8 August 2011). 5 Skelton DA, Dinan S. Exercise for falls management: rationale for an exercise programme to reduce postural instability. Physiother Theory Pract. 1999;15:105–20. 6 Dinan S, Exercise for vulnerable older patients, In: Young A, Harries M, editors. Exercise prescription for patients. London: Royal College of Physicians; 2001. 7 Harkins KJ, Mulley GP. Walking aids. CME Geriatr Med. 2002;4(Pt 1):23–7. 8* Gooberman-Hill R, Ebrahim S. Making decisions about simple interventions: older people’s use of walking aids. Age Ageing. 2007;6:569–73. 9 van der Esch M, Heijmans M, Dekker J. Factors contributing to possession and use of walking aids among persons with rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis. Arthritis Care Res. 2003;49(Pt 6):838–42. 10 Anslow R, Pinnington LL, Pratt DJ, Spicer J, Ward CD, Weyman N. Stability and manoeuvrability of wheeled walking frames. Physiotherapy. 2001;87(Pt 8):402–12. 11 Edwards NI, Jones DA. Ownership and use of assistive devices amongst older people in the community. Age Ageing. 1998;27:463–8. 12* Bateni H, Maki BE. Assistive devices for balance and mobility: benefits, demands and adverse consequences. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2005;86:134–43. 13 Ivanoff SD, Sonn U. Changes in the use of assistive devices among 90-year-old persons. Aging Clin Exp Res. 2005:17;246–51. 14 Aveyard H. Doing a literature review in health and social care. A practical guide. Glasgow: Open University Press; 2007. 15 Sackett DL, Rosenberg WM, Muir Gray JA, Haynes RB, Richardson WS. Evidence based medicine. What it is and what it isn’t. BMJ. 1996;312:71–2. 16 Public Health Resource Unit. CASP critical appraisal tools. Available from: http://www.sph.nhs.uk/what-we-do/publichealth- workforce/resources/critical-appraisals-skills-programme (Accessed 19 September 2010). 17 Oxford Centre for Evidence-based Medicine — Levels of Evidence. 2009 Mar. Available from: http://www.cebm.net/ index.aspx?o51025 (Accessed 08 September 2010). 18 Haines T, Brown C, Morrison J. Public provision of fourwheeled walkers: contingent valuation study of economic benefit. Australas J Ageing. 2008;27(Pt 3):161–4. 19 Stevens JA, Thomas K, The L, Greenspan AI. Unintentional fall injuries associated with walkers and canes in older adults treated in US Emergency departments. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2009;57:1464–69. 20 Bryant MS, Rintala DH, Lai EC, Raines ML, Protas EJ. Evaluation of a new device to prevent falls in person’s with Parkinson’s disease. Disabil Rehabil. 2009;4(Pt 5):357–63. 21* Eggermont LH, van Heuvelen MJ, van Keeken B, Scherder EJ. Walking with a rollator and the level of physical intensity in adults aged 75 years of age and older. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2006;87(Pt 5):733–6. 22 Mahoney J, Euhardy R, Carnes M. A comparison of a 2 wheeled and a 3 wheeled walker in a geriatric population. J Am Geriatr Soc. 1992;40:208–12. 23* Probst VS, Troosters T, Coosemans I, Spruit MA, Pitta F, Decramer M, et al. Mechanisms of improvement in exercise capacity using a rollator in patients with COPD. Chest. 2004;126(4):1102–7. Available from: http://chestjournal. chestpubs.org/content/126/4/1102.full (Accessed 28 July 2010). 24* Protas EJ, Raines ML, Tissier S. Comparison of spatiotemporal and energy cost of the use of 3 different walkers and unassisted walking in older adults. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2007:88;768–73 25 Anderson DA, Roos BA, Stanziano DC, Gonzalez NM, Signorile JF. Walker use but not falls, is associated with lower physical functioning and health of residents in an assistedliving environment. Clin Interv Aging. 2007;2:123–7. 26 Cetin E, Muzembo J, Pardessus V, Puisieux F, Thevenon A. Impact of different types of walking aids on the physiological energy cost during gait for elderly individuals with several pathologies and dependent on a technical aid for walking. Ann Phys Med Rehabil. 2010;53:399–405. 27* Liu H, McGee M, Wang W, Persson M. Comparison of gait characteristics between older rolling walker users and older potential walker users. Arch Gerontol Geriatr. 2009;48:276– 80. 28* Liu H, McGee M, Prati V, Garrison K, FuQ. Comparison of standing balance parameters between rolling walker users and potential rolling walker users: a pilot study. Phys Occup Ther Geriatr. 2009;27(Pt 4):298–309. 29 Liu H, Grando V, Zabel R, Nolen J. Pilot study evaluating fear of falling and falls among older rolling walker users. Int J Ther Rehabil. 2009;16(Pt 12):670–5. 30 Lucki K, Bach M, Banzer W. Walker use affects times get up and go and gait speed measures. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2009;57(Pt 10):1963–4. 31* Roomi J, Yohannes AM, Connolly MJ. The effect of walking aids on exercise capacity and oxygenation in elderly patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Age Ageing. 1998;27:703–6. 32* Vogt L, Lucki K, Bach M, Banzer W. Rollator use and functional outcome of geriatric rehabilitation. J Rehabil Res Dev. 2010;47(Pt 2):151–6. 33* Liu H. Assessment of rolling walkers used by older adults in senior living communities. Geriatr Gerontol Int. 2009;9:124– 30. 34 Charron PM, Kirby RL, MacLeod DA. Epidemiology of walker related injuries and deaths in the United States. Am J Phys Med Rehabil. 1995;74(Pt 3):237–40. 35 Graafmans WC, Lips P, Wijlhuizen GJ, Pluijm SM, Bouter LM. Daily activity and the use of a walking aid in relation to falls in elderly people in a residential care setting. Z Gerontol Geriat. 2003;36:23–8. 36 Gupta R, Goldstein R, Brooks D. The acute effects of a rollator in individuals with COPD. J Cardiopul Rehabil. 2006;26:107–11. 37 Honeyman P, Barr P, Stubbing DG. Effect of a walking aid on disability, oxygenation, and breathlessness in patients with chronic airflow limitation. J Cardiopul Rehabil. 1996;16:63–7. 38 Brooks LL, Wertsch JJ, Duthie EH. Use of devices for mobility by the elderly. Wis Med J. 1994;93(Pt 1):16–20. 39 Takanokura M. Optimal handgrip height of four wheeled walker on various road conditions to reduce muscular load for elderly users with steady walking. J Biomech. 2010;43(Pt 5):843–8. 40 Nabizadeh SA, Hardee TB, Towler MA, Chen VT, Edlich RF. Technical considerations in the selection and performance of walkers. J Burn Care Rehabil. 1993;14:182–8.",
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A systematic review of the evidence for the provision of walking frames for older people. / O' Hare, Margaret; Pryde, Shona; Gracey, Jacqueline.

In: Physical Therapy Reviews, Vol. 18, No. 1, 24.02.2013, p. 11-23.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - A systematic review of the evidence for the provision of walking frames for older people

AU - O' Hare, Margaret

AU - Pryde, Shona

AU - Gracey, Jacqueline

N1 - Reference text: Close J. Prevention of falls in older people. Disabil Rehabil. 2005;27:1061–71. 2 Gillespie LD, Robertson MC, Gillespie WJ, Lamb SE, Gates S, Cummings RG, et al. Interventions for preventing falls in older people living in the community. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2009:(2);CD007416. 3 Tinetti ME, Baker DI, McAvay G, Claus EB, Garrett P, Loch ML, et al. A multi-factorial intervention to reduce the risk of falling among elderly people living in the community. Boston Med Surg J. 1994;331:821–7. 4 WHO strategy document. A strategy for active healthy ageing and old age care in the Eastern MediterraneanRegion. Available from: www.emro.who.int/dsal dsa543.pdf (Accessed 8 August 2011). 5 Skelton DA, Dinan S. Exercise for falls management: rationale for an exercise programme to reduce postural instability. Physiother Theory Pract. 1999;15:105–20. 6 Dinan S, Exercise for vulnerable older patients, In: Young A, Harries M, editors. Exercise prescription for patients. London: Royal College of Physicians; 2001. 7 Harkins KJ, Mulley GP. Walking aids. CME Geriatr Med. 2002;4(Pt 1):23–7. 8* Gooberman-Hill R, Ebrahim S. Making decisions about simple interventions: older people’s use of walking aids. Age Ageing. 2007;6:569–73. 9 van der Esch M, Heijmans M, Dekker J. Factors contributing to possession and use of walking aids among persons with rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis. Arthritis Care Res. 2003;49(Pt 6):838–42. 10 Anslow R, Pinnington LL, Pratt DJ, Spicer J, Ward CD, Weyman N. Stability and manoeuvrability of wheeled walking frames. Physiotherapy. 2001;87(Pt 8):402–12. 11 Edwards NI, Jones DA. Ownership and use of assistive devices amongst older people in the community. Age Ageing. 1998;27:463–8. 12* Bateni H, Maki BE. Assistive devices for balance and mobility: benefits, demands and adverse consequences. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2005;86:134–43. 13 Ivanoff SD, Sonn U. Changes in the use of assistive devices among 90-year-old persons. Aging Clin Exp Res. 2005:17;246–51. 14 Aveyard H. Doing a literature review in health and social care. A practical guide. Glasgow: Open University Press; 2007. 15 Sackett DL, Rosenberg WM, Muir Gray JA, Haynes RB, Richardson WS. Evidence based medicine. What it is and what it isn’t. BMJ. 1996;312:71–2. 16 Public Health Resource Unit. CASP critical appraisal tools. Available from: http://www.sph.nhs.uk/what-we-do/publichealth- workforce/resources/critical-appraisals-skills-programme (Accessed 19 September 2010). 17 Oxford Centre for Evidence-based Medicine — Levels of Evidence. 2009 Mar. Available from: http://www.cebm.net/ index.aspx?o51025 (Accessed 08 September 2010). 18 Haines T, Brown C, Morrison J. Public provision of fourwheeled walkers: contingent valuation study of economic benefit. Australas J Ageing. 2008;27(Pt 3):161–4. 19 Stevens JA, Thomas K, The L, Greenspan AI. Unintentional fall injuries associated with walkers and canes in older adults treated in US Emergency departments. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2009;57:1464–69. 20 Bryant MS, Rintala DH, Lai EC, Raines ML, Protas EJ. Evaluation of a new device to prevent falls in person’s with Parkinson’s disease. Disabil Rehabil. 2009;4(Pt 5):357–63. 21* Eggermont LH, van Heuvelen MJ, van Keeken B, Scherder EJ. Walking with a rollator and the level of physical intensity in adults aged 75 years of age and older. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2006;87(Pt 5):733–6. 22 Mahoney J, Euhardy R, Carnes M. A comparison of a 2 wheeled and a 3 wheeled walker in a geriatric population. J Am Geriatr Soc. 1992;40:208–12. 23* Probst VS, Troosters T, Coosemans I, Spruit MA, Pitta F, Decramer M, et al. Mechanisms of improvement in exercise capacity using a rollator in patients with COPD. Chest. 2004;126(4):1102–7. Available from: http://chestjournal. chestpubs.org/content/126/4/1102.full (Accessed 28 July 2010). 24* Protas EJ, Raines ML, Tissier S. Comparison of spatiotemporal and energy cost of the use of 3 different walkers and unassisted walking in older adults. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2007:88;768–73 25 Anderson DA, Roos BA, Stanziano DC, Gonzalez NM, Signorile JF. Walker use but not falls, is associated with lower physical functioning and health of residents in an assistedliving environment. Clin Interv Aging. 2007;2:123–7. 26 Cetin E, Muzembo J, Pardessus V, Puisieux F, Thevenon A. Impact of different types of walking aids on the physiological energy cost during gait for elderly individuals with several pathologies and dependent on a technical aid for walking. Ann Phys Med Rehabil. 2010;53:399–405. 27* Liu H, McGee M, Wang W, Persson M. Comparison of gait characteristics between older rolling walker users and older potential walker users. Arch Gerontol Geriatr. 2009;48:276– 80. 28* Liu H, McGee M, Prati V, Garrison K, FuQ. Comparison of standing balance parameters between rolling walker users and potential rolling walker users: a pilot study. Phys Occup Ther Geriatr. 2009;27(Pt 4):298–309. 29 Liu H, Grando V, Zabel R, Nolen J. Pilot study evaluating fear of falling and falls among older rolling walker users. Int J Ther Rehabil. 2009;16(Pt 12):670–5. 30 Lucki K, Bach M, Banzer W. Walker use affects times get up and go and gait speed measures. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2009;57(Pt 10):1963–4. 31* Roomi J, Yohannes AM, Connolly MJ. The effect of walking aids on exercise capacity and oxygenation in elderly patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Age Ageing. 1998;27:703–6. 32* Vogt L, Lucki K, Bach M, Banzer W. Rollator use and functional outcome of geriatric rehabilitation. J Rehabil Res Dev. 2010;47(Pt 2):151–6. 33* Liu H. Assessment of rolling walkers used by older adults in senior living communities. Geriatr Gerontol Int. 2009;9:124– 30. 34 Charron PM, Kirby RL, MacLeod DA. Epidemiology of walker related injuries and deaths in the United States. Am J Phys Med Rehabil. 1995;74(Pt 3):237–40. 35 Graafmans WC, Lips P, Wijlhuizen GJ, Pluijm SM, Bouter LM. Daily activity and the use of a walking aid in relation to falls in elderly people in a residential care setting. Z Gerontol Geriat. 2003;36:23–8. 36 Gupta R, Goldstein R, Brooks D. The acute effects of a rollator in individuals with COPD. J Cardiopul Rehabil. 2006;26:107–11. 37 Honeyman P, Barr P, Stubbing DG. Effect of a walking aid on disability, oxygenation, and breathlessness in patients with chronic airflow limitation. J Cardiopul Rehabil. 1996;16:63–7. 38 Brooks LL, Wertsch JJ, Duthie EH. Use of devices for mobility by the elderly. Wis Med J. 1994;93(Pt 1):16–20. 39 Takanokura M. Optimal handgrip height of four wheeled walker on various road conditions to reduce muscular load for elderly users with steady walking. J Biomech. 2010;43(Pt 5):843–8. 40 Nabizadeh SA, Hardee TB, Towler MA, Chen VT, Edlich RF. Technical considerations in the selection and performance of walkers. J Burn Care Rehabil. 1993;14:182–8.

PY - 2013/2/24

Y1 - 2013/2/24

N2 - Background: The purpose of this paper is to systematically review the evidence for the provision of walkingframes to improve mobility for older people.Objectives: To investigate the types of frames used and the processes involved in prescribing frames, andto determine the effects of using a frame.Methods: The AMED, CINAHL, Embase, and MEDLINE Electronic databases were searched using keyterms between 1990 and January 2011. Research papers reporting outcomes about the effectiveness ofwalking frames in relation to mobility for older people were eligible for inclusion. Sixteen papers wereincluded under the criteria applied, representing 17% of the studies identified. A range of study designswas included. Double-blind review was carried out and quality assessment conducted using CASP criticalappraisal tools. Synthesis of literature was carried out on a narrative basis through the development ofthemes in relation to types of frames, user’s perspective, falls prevention, effects on gait and balance, andphysiological effects.Results: The evidence reviewed is largely of poor quality. Users obtain walking frames from many sources.The evidence reviewed neither proves nor disproves their effectiveness in the prevention of falls. Walkingframe use does have an effect on gait patterns and some physiological outcomes. The effect on postureand balance remains unclear.Conclusions: A need for clinical guidelines in relation to provision of walking frames has been identified. Thetherapeutic use of walking frames to improve physical fitness merits further research as well as longer-termstudies to evaluate the effects over time.

AB - Background: The purpose of this paper is to systematically review the evidence for the provision of walkingframes to improve mobility for older people.Objectives: To investigate the types of frames used and the processes involved in prescribing frames, andto determine the effects of using a frame.Methods: The AMED, CINAHL, Embase, and MEDLINE Electronic databases were searched using keyterms between 1990 and January 2011. Research papers reporting outcomes about the effectiveness ofwalking frames in relation to mobility for older people were eligible for inclusion. Sixteen papers wereincluded under the criteria applied, representing 17% of the studies identified. A range of study designswas included. Double-blind review was carried out and quality assessment conducted using CASP criticalappraisal tools. Synthesis of literature was carried out on a narrative basis through the development ofthemes in relation to types of frames, user’s perspective, falls prevention, effects on gait and balance, andphysiological effects.Results: The evidence reviewed is largely of poor quality. Users obtain walking frames from many sources.The evidence reviewed neither proves nor disproves their effectiveness in the prevention of falls. Walkingframe use does have an effect on gait patterns and some physiological outcomes. The effect on postureand balance remains unclear.Conclusions: A need for clinical guidelines in relation to provision of walking frames has been identified. Thetherapeutic use of walking frames to improve physical fitness merits further research as well as longer-termstudies to evaluate the effects over time.

KW - Walking frames

KW - Aging

KW - Rehabilitation

U2 - 10.1179/1743288X12Y.0000000036

DO - 10.1179/1743288X12Y.0000000036

M3 - Article

VL - 18

SP - 11

EP - 23

JO - Physical Therapy Reviews

T2 - Physical Therapy Reviews

JF - Physical Therapy Reviews

SN - 1083-3196

IS - 1

ER -