A systematic analysis of the Braitenberg vehicle 2b for point-like stimulus sources

Ignacio Rano

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    3 Citations (Scopus)


    Braitenberg vehicles have been used experimentally for decades in robotics with limited empirical understanding. This paper presents the first mathematical model of the vehicle 2b, displaying so-called aggression behaviour, and analyses the possible trajectories for point-like smooth stimulus sources. This sensory-motor steering control mechanism is used to implement biologically grounded target approach, target-seeking or obstacle-avoidance behaviour. However, the analysis of the resulting model reveals that complex and unexpected trajectories can result even for point-like stimuli. We also prove how the implementation of the controller and the vehicle morphology interact to affect the behaviour of the vehicle. This work provides a better understanding of Braitenberg vehicle 2b, explains experimental results and paves the way for a formally grounded application on robotics as well as for a new way of understanding target seeking in biology.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)1-14
    Issue number3
    Publication statusPublished - 15 May 2012


    Cite this