A synthesis of pathways linking diet, metabolic risk and cardiovascular disease: a framework to guide further research and approaches to evidence-based practice

Marjorie Lima do Vale, Luke Buckner, Claudia Gabriela Mitrofan, Claudia Raulino Tramontt, Sento Kai Kargbo, Ali Khalid, Sammyia Ashraf, Saad Mouti, Xiaowu Dai, David Unwin, Jeffrey Bohn, Lisa Goldberg, Rajna Golubic, Sumantra Ray

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Abstract

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the most common non-communicable disease occurring globally. Although previous literature have provided useful insights on the important role that diet play in CVD prevention and treatment, understanding the causal role of diets is a difficult task considering inherent and introduced weaknesses of observational (e.g., not properly addressing confounders and mediators) and experimental research designs (e.g., not appropriate or well-designed). In this narrative review, we organised current evidence linking diet, as well as conventional and emerging physiological risk factors with CVD risk, incidence and mortality in a series of diagrams. The diagrams presented can aid causal inference studies as they provide a visual representation of the types of studies underlying the associations between potential risk markers/factors for CVD. This may facilitate the selection of variables to be considered and the creation of analytical models. Evidence depicted in the diagrams was systematically collected from studies included in the British Nutrition Task Force report on Diet and CVD and database searches, including Medline and Embase. Although several markers and disorders linked to conventional and emerging risk factors for CVD were identified, the causal link between many remains unknown. There is a need to address the multifactorial nature of CVD and the complex interplay between conventional and emerging risk factors with natural and built environments, while bringing the life course and the role of additional environmental factors into the spotlight.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-72
JournalNutrition Research Reviews
Early online date29 Nov 2021
DOIs
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 29 Nov 2021

Keywords

  • Diet
  • Risk factors
  • Causality
  • Cardiovascular disease
  • Review
  • Nutritional status

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