A Survey of Internet of Things and Cyber-Physical Systems: Standards, Algorithms, Applications, Security, Challenges, and Future Directions

Kwok Tai Chui, Brij B. Gupta, Jiaqi Liu, Varsha Arya, Nadia Nedjah, Ammar Almomani, Priyanka Chaurasia

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Citations (Scopus)
63 Downloads (Pure)

Abstract

The smart city vision has driven the rapid development and advancement of interconnected technologies using the Internet of Things (IoT) and cyber-physical systems (CPS). In this paper, various aspects of IoT and CPS in recent years (from 2013 to May 2023) are surveyed. It first begins with industry standards which ensure cost-effective solutions and interoperability. With ever-growing big data, tremendous undiscovered knowledge can be mined to be transformed into useful applications. Machine learning algorithms are taking the lead to achieve various target applications with formulations such as classification, clustering, regression, prediction, and anomaly detection. Notably, attention has shifted from traditional machine learning algorithms to advanced algorithms, including deep learning, transfer learning, and data generation algorithms, to provide more accurate models. In recent years, there has been an increasing need for advanced security techniques and defense strategies to detect and prevent the IoT and CPS from being attacked. Research challenges and future directions are summarized. We hope that more researchers can conduct more studies on the IoT and on CPS.
Original languageEnglish
Article number388
Pages (from-to)388
Number of pages1
JournalInformation
Volume14
Issue number7
Early online date8 Jul 2023
DOIs
Publication statusPublished online - 8 Jul 2023

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 by the authors.

Keywords

  • big data
  • cyber-physical systems
  • cybersecurity
  • data generation
  • deep learning
  • internet of things
  • machine learning
  • smart city
  • transfer learning

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