A Restorative Challenge: Can Citizenship Trump Identity in Northern Ireland?

Derick Wilson

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

Abstract

Abstract: Northern Ireland was a space where it was impossible to experience anything that metropolitan societies called peace. The restorative task of nurturing new energy and vitality in relationships and structures has to acknowledge, but not be overwhelmed by, the potential of fear to invade, and even destroy, every potential meeting across lines of difference.The normal rituals of more secure societies that allow past and hurtful events to be both acknowledged and placed at a distance over time from day to day life do not work. As the society seeks to move on, through new political agreements and mutually owned institutions, it takes time and deep commitment to build new institutions and rituals that propel people forward and build mutual ownership and cohesion.A vortex of asymmetries of experience makes mutual understanding difficult. Some asymmetries are: historically there was asymmetrical access to the state internally and with the aligned cosmopolitan neighbours: there was a differential impact of the conflict on discrete groups of people in areas of need, some specific geographical areas and some specific types of employment; between those who want their hurt acknowledged and those who refuse to remember; and different groups demanding that the ‘others’ acknowledge their violence without them acknowledging their own. A restorative task is to promote spaces and relationships where people experience being at ease with different others. Such relational work is made much easier when supported by wider institutional structures promoting trust as a societal imperative and equal citizenship as a foundation.In ethnic frontier societies each does not often see the other as an equal citizen. Promoting liberating restorative experiences and knowledge is to: ‘to promote an ease with different others’; offer space to morally re-evaluate each tradition’s actions; promoting active experiences that carry the message that ‘change is possible’; acknowledging that dealing with the past is a task for more than the dispersed community of victims and survivors; and an understanding that truth telling, justice and empathy between diverse people can assist healing.Identities can become too localised, often limiting opportunity and imagination for adults and children alike. Local essentialism closes people to difference. Ethnocentric Irishness or Britishness has been easily tenable on the fringes of those historic cultures yet reflect little of the growing diversity at their centres. At this time, some secure states are now experiencing the growth of ethnocentric groups in their midst, with people unwilling to share with different others. Here equal citizenship is challenged and the ethnic frontier and the metropolitan centres have an opportunity to learn together. As citizens within an expanded Europe, there is a restorative historical healing necessary around Islamic, Christian and Jewish relations and more modern expressions of distrust and violence that links restorative reconciliation practice in Northern Ireland with central European ‘silences’ . Promoting good relations between people of different religious beliefs, political opinion, racial groups, sexual orientation, diverse abilities and social backgrounds are modern challenge for citizens in all societies, if they accept it. The challenge now is to promote a restorative civic and public culture that moves people beyond the important compliance base established in law to promote a commitment to treating all fairly and build a new culture of ease with different others. Building a more restorative culture in society is to work on a number of axes. These include: empowering voice, promoting new norms, discerning values at work and envisioning a shared society; and a restorative practice that supports people as they transgress limiting cultural boundaries and weave relationships between diverse people; supporting structural change, engaging politically and challenging civil society cultures to be more open and inclusive.
LanguageEnglish
Title of host publicationRestorative Approaches to Conflict in Schools. Interdisciplinary perspectives on whole school approaches to managing relationships.
EditorsGillean McCluskey, Ed Sellman, Hilary Cremin
Place of PublicationAbingdon, Oxon & New York
Pages59-74
Publication statusPublished - Sep 2013

Fingerprint

citizenship
citizen
experience
society
asymmetry
religious behavior
Group
relational work
type of employment
commitment
violence
political opinion
social background
sexual orientation
empathy
group cohesion
reconciliation
structural change
civil society
peace

Keywords

  • Restorative practices
  • Citizenship
  • Identity
  • Ethnic frontier

Cite this

Wilson, D. (2013). A Restorative Challenge: Can Citizenship Trump Identity in Northern Ireland? In G. McCluskey, E. Sellman, & H. Cremin (Eds.), Restorative Approaches to Conflict in Schools. Interdisciplinary perspectives on whole school approaches to managing relationships. (pp. 59-74). Abingdon, Oxon & New York.
Wilson, Derick. / A Restorative Challenge: Can Citizenship Trump Identity in Northern Ireland?. Restorative Approaches to Conflict in Schools. Interdisciplinary perspectives on whole school approaches to managing relationships.. editor / Gillean McCluskey ; Ed Sellman ; Hilary Cremin. Abingdon, Oxon & New York, 2013. pp. 59-74
@inbook{a466a113899749fe989a28a36ee4bc45,
title = "A Restorative Challenge: Can Citizenship Trump Identity in Northern Ireland?",
abstract = "Abstract: Northern Ireland was a space where it was impossible to experience anything that metropolitan societies called peace. The restorative task of nurturing new energy and vitality in relationships and structures has to acknowledge, but not be overwhelmed by, the potential of fear to invade, and even destroy, every potential meeting across lines of difference.The normal rituals of more secure societies that allow past and hurtful events to be both acknowledged and placed at a distance over time from day to day life do not work. As the society seeks to move on, through new political agreements and mutually owned institutions, it takes time and deep commitment to build new institutions and rituals that propel people forward and build mutual ownership and cohesion.A vortex of asymmetries of experience makes mutual understanding difficult. Some asymmetries are: historically there was asymmetrical access to the state internally and with the aligned cosmopolitan neighbours: there was a differential impact of the conflict on discrete groups of people in areas of need, some specific geographical areas and some specific types of employment; between those who want their hurt acknowledged and those who refuse to remember; and different groups demanding that the ‘others’ acknowledge their violence without them acknowledging their own. A restorative task is to promote spaces and relationships where people experience being at ease with different others. Such relational work is made much easier when supported by wider institutional structures promoting trust as a societal imperative and equal citizenship as a foundation.In ethnic frontier societies each does not often see the other as an equal citizen. Promoting liberating restorative experiences and knowledge is to: ‘to promote an ease with different others’; offer space to morally re-evaluate each tradition’s actions; promoting active experiences that carry the message that ‘change is possible’; acknowledging that dealing with the past is a task for more than the dispersed community of victims and survivors; and an understanding that truth telling, justice and empathy between diverse people can assist healing.Identities can become too localised, often limiting opportunity and imagination for adults and children alike. Local essentialism closes people to difference. Ethnocentric Irishness or Britishness has been easily tenable on the fringes of those historic cultures yet reflect little of the growing diversity at their centres. At this time, some secure states are now experiencing the growth of ethnocentric groups in their midst, with people unwilling to share with different others. Here equal citizenship is challenged and the ethnic frontier and the metropolitan centres have an opportunity to learn together. As citizens within an expanded Europe, there is a restorative historical healing necessary around Islamic, Christian and Jewish relations and more modern expressions of distrust and violence that links restorative reconciliation practice in Northern Ireland with central European ‘silences’ . Promoting good relations between people of different religious beliefs, political opinion, racial groups, sexual orientation, diverse abilities and social backgrounds are modern challenge for citizens in all societies, if they accept it. The challenge now is to promote a restorative civic and public culture that moves people beyond the important compliance base established in law to promote a commitment to treating all fairly and build a new culture of ease with different others. Building a more restorative culture in society is to work on a number of axes. These include: empowering voice, promoting new norms, discerning values at work and envisioning a shared society; and a restorative practice that supports people as they transgress limiting cultural boundaries and weave relationships between diverse people; supporting structural change, engaging politically and challenging civil society cultures to be more open and inclusive.",
keywords = "Restorative practices, Citizenship, Identity, Ethnic frontier",
author = "Derick Wilson",
note = "Reference text: Wright, F., (1987), Northern Ireland, A Comparative Analysis, Dublin: Gill & Macmillan. Eyben, K., Morrow, D., & Wilson, D A., (1997),A Worthwhile Venture-Practically Investing in Equity, Diversity and Interdependence in Northern Ireland? Coleraine: University of Ulster John Paul Lederach, From Truce to Transformation, www.nicrc.org.uk., Nov. 23, 2007,. p 6 {2 Jan 2013}. Consultative group on acknowledging the past, 2009, p.60 {Last accessed 31 December 2012} Morrow, D., Nobody's aspiration, everybody's predicament. British-Irish Association, Oriel College, 2004 http://www.community-relations.org.uk/about-the-council/background-info/nobodys-aspiration-everybodys-prcament) Last Accessed 25 Sept 2012. A . Jenkins, (2006) Shame, Realisation and Restitution-The ethics of restorative practice, ANZFJT, Vol 27, Number 3 2006. Pp 153-162). Wilson, 2010, Promoting Previously Unthinkable Ways, Paper for ESRC Seminar Series on Restorative Approaches to Conflict in Schools. http://www.educ.cam.ac.uk/research/projects/restorativeapproaches/ Healing through remembering, www.healingthroughremembering.info/, WAVE See http://www.wavetraumacentre.org.uk http://www.wavetraumacentre.org.uk/, http://www.nybooks.com/articles/archives/1986/feb/27/an-interview-with-czeslaw-milosz {31 Dec 20122] Consultative Group on Acknowledging the Past, 2009. http://www.number10.gov.uk/news/pm-statement-on-saville-inquiry/ {Last Accessed 25th Sept. 2012} Cota, D., & Gangadeen,T.G, (2010), John Jay College of Criminal Justice http://www.belfastcity.gov.uk/goodrelations/peaceIIIfunding.asp Edwards, M., (2004) Civil Society, Polity Press. Restorative Justice and Civil Society, eds: Strang and Braithwaite. (2001), Cambridge Univ. Press. Wilson, D. A, (1994),. Learning Together for a Change, Unpublished D Phil Thesis, Univ. of Ulster Library Eyben,K Morrow, D.,& Wilson, D.A. with Robinson, (2002), The Equity, Diversity and Interdependence Framework; A Programme for Organisational Change, University of Ulster. Girard, R. (1977) Violence and the Sacred, Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press. Wilson& Morrow. (1994) Way Out of Conflict, Belfast: Corrymeela Press. See also http://www.socsci.ulster.ac.uk/research/education/futureways/woc.pdf ; www.bbcnieyewitness for group learning materials Police Service for NI 2009-10/Race related crime http://www.psni.police.uk/3._hate_incidents_and_crimes_final.pdf. Shriver, D. (2005) Honest Patriots, New York: OUP Tyrell, G. & Wilson, D.A. (1995) Institutions for Conciliation and Mediation in Facets of the Conflict in Northern Ireland, ed.Dunn, S., Macmillan Press. Shriver, D. (2007) Truths for Reconciliation-An American Perspective NI Community Relations Council. http://www.community-relations.org.uk/about-us/news/item/125/an-ethic-for-enemies/?keywords=Donald+Shriver {2 Jan 2013} The Northern Ireland Juvenile Courts now has a mandatory restorative conferencing structure for all juveniles who plead guilty. Shriver, D. (2005) Honest Patriots, New York: OUP. p9. Wilson, D. A. & Eyben, K. (2006) Fit For Purpose?” Future Ways Programme, University of Ulster., p44, Eyben, K., Morrow, D., & Wilson, D A. (1997) A Worthwhile Venture-Practically Investing in Equity, Diversity and Interdependence in Northern Ireland? Coleraine: University of Ulster. A Shared Future. (2005) Belfast: OFMDFM. para 1. Lederach, J.P. (2007) From Truce to Transformation, www.nicrc.org.uk., Nov. 23, 2007. p 6 {2 Jan 2013}. Wilson D. A. Coming of Age at Last in Youth Studies Ireland, VOL. 2NO. 1 Spring / Summer 2007, p55 http://eprints.ulster.ac.uk/998/1/2._Coming_of_Age_at_last_PDF.pdf Pavlich, George. (2004) ‘Restorative Justice’s Community: Promise and Peril’, in Barb Toews and Howard Zehr (eds) Critical Issues in Restorative Justice, Criminal Justice Press. Ranjit Sondhi CBE Oxford Centre for Hindu Studies, 2004. http://www.ochs.org.uk/news/evening-ranjit-sondhi-cbe-launches-ochs-leicester Last accessed 2 Jan 2012 Andr{\'e} Lascaris, (2008) Healing Europe, Dominicaans Studiecentrum voor Theologie en Samenleving, The Netherlands a.lascaris@hetnet.nl Eyben, Morrow & Wilson. (2002) The Equity, Diversity and Interdependence Framework: A Framework for Organisational Learning and Change. University of Ulster. 112 pp ISBN ISBN 1-85923-160-8, p25 Wilson, D A. ( 2009) Platforms for a Restorative Culture in Northern Ireland, www.restorativejustice.org, Equality and Good Relations Legislation, Section 75 (i) (ii), Northern Ireland Act, 1998. Montville, Joseph. 1990. Conflict and Peacemaking In Multiethnic Societies. Lexington, MA and Toronto: Lexington Books. Montville, Joseph. (1993) The Healing Function in Political Conflict Resolution. in Conflict Resolution Theory and Practice: Integration and Application, edited by Dennis J. D. Sandole and Hugo van der Merwe. New York: Manchester University Press. Lederach, John Paul (2003). The little book of conflict transformation. Intercourse, PA: Good Books Lederach, J. P. (2007) ‘Truce or Transformation, Belfast, www.nicrc.org. Towards Understanding and healing, www.thejunction-ni.org/towardsunderstandingandhealing.htm Fitzduff, M. (1987) From Ritual to Consciousness, D Phil Thesis, University of Ulster.. Wilson D. A. (2007) Coming of Age at Last in Youth Studies Ireland, VOL. 2 NO. 1 Spring / Summer Policing Our Divided Society, Mediation Northern Ireland & Future Ways Report to The International Commission on Policing in Northern Ireland (The Patten Commission),1998; Changing Police Culture, A Critical Dialogue Project, Morrow, Wilson, Mc Allister & Campbell. (2004) Mediation Northern Ireland & Future Ways, Unpublished, 2004 Civic Leadership- A Western Routes Programme Report, (2002) University of Ulster; Eyben, Keys & Wilson, 2006 A New Shape For One Of The Oldest Professions?” Politics and Civil Society, The Good Relations Task, Belfast City Council. Magill C.; Smith A. and B. Hamber (2009) The Role of Education in Reconciliation. A Report for the EU Peace and Reconciliation Fund. Coleraine, Ulster; Paper for Principals of Integrated Schools, NICIE, Wilson, D.A.2006 CCETSW(NI) (1999) Getting Off the Fence: Challenging Sectarianism in Personal Social Services, London: Belfast. Wilson, D. A., (2007) Coming of Age at Last in Youth Studies Ireland, VOL. 2NO. 1 Spring / Summer 2007, p55 {http://eprints.ulster.ac.uk/998/1/2._Coming_of_Age_at_last_PDF.pdf} Wilson, D.A., (2007) Probation Practice and Citizenship, Good Relations and the Emerging European Intercultural Agenda, Irish Probation Journal Marie Therese Fay, Mike Morrissey, Marie Smyth and Tracy Wong. (1999) The Cost of the Troubles Study. Report on the Northern Ireland Survey: the experience and impact of the Troubles Derry Londonderry: INCORE. ISBN 0-9533305-5-9 Paperback 161pp Shriver, 2005, Honest Patriots, New York: OUP. The works of Mc Donagh, Falconer, Smith, Morrow (J), Stevens, Leichty, Clegg, Mc Master & Higgins, Hurley, Davey, Barkley are some examples. Decentralize, adapt and cooperate, (2010) R. Sagarin, C. Alcorta, S. Atran, et al. Nature 465, 292-293. http://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/1998/47/contents. {Last accessed 30 Dec, 2012} Eyben, Morrow & Wilson, (2002) The Equity, Diversity and Interdependence Framework: A Framework for Organisational Learning and Change. University of Ulster. 112 pp ISBN ISBN 1-85923-160-8; Eyben, K. Wilson, D.A. & Morrow, D. J. (2003) Investing in Trust Building and Good Relations in a Public Sector Organisation. Coleraine, University of Ulster. (Reprinted May 2004) ISBN:1 85923 167 5;JEDI; CRED; Eyben, K. Wilson, D.A. & Morrow, D. J. (2003), Investing in Trust Building and Good Relations in a Public Sector Organisation. Coleraine, University of Ulster. (Reprinted May 2004) ISBN: 1 85923 167 5 Wilson et al, (2012) Understanding Works. Belfast: Understanding Conflict Trust Shriver, D. (2005) Honest Patriots, New York: OUP Connell, W.F. (1981) A History of Education in the 20th Century World, Teachers College Press. Wilson, D.A., 1994, Learning together for a change{"}: the evolution of an educational model for cross-community meetings between adults in a divided society. D.Phil. Thesis, University of Ulster. http://www.etini.gov.uk/index/international-fund-for-irelands-sharing-in-education-programme.htm {2 Jan 2013}; http://www.qub.ac.uk/research-centres/CentreforSharedEducation/ {2 Jan 2013 http://www.ycni.org/downloads/CRED/cred_policy_doc1.pdf. Last accessed 30 Dec, 2012 Morrow, The Practice, Progress and Failings of Community Relations Work in Northern Ireland, IRISS Seminar Paper, May 2012. www.ulster.ac.uk/IRiSS See Changemakers Programme, Community Relations in Schools {http://www.cris-ni.org.uk/}; WIMPS. { http://wimps.tv/ 2 Jan 2013}. The Facing History Programme, The Corrymeela Community { http://www.corrymeela.org/programmes/our-programmes.aspx, 2 Jan 2013} The Northern Ireland Curriculum, http://www.nicurriculum.org.uk/ {Last accessed 30 Dec, 2012} www.niccy.org/ An organisation that promotes and safeguards the rights and best interests of children and young people. Zeldin, R. (2004) Youth-Adult Relationships in Community Programs: Diverse Perspectives on Good Practices, Journal of Community Psychology, Volume 33 Issue 1, Pages 121 – 135 Special Issue: Wiley Periodicals, Atran,S. Talking to the Enemy, 2010, New York,: Harper Collins.",
year = "2013",
month = "9",
language = "English",
isbn = "978-0-415-65611-5",
pages = "59--74",
editor = "Gillean McCluskey and Ed Sellman and Hilary Cremin",
booktitle = "Restorative Approaches to Conflict in Schools. Interdisciplinary perspectives on whole school approaches to managing relationships.",

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Wilson, D 2013, A Restorative Challenge: Can Citizenship Trump Identity in Northern Ireland? in G McCluskey, E Sellman & H Cremin (eds), Restorative Approaches to Conflict in Schools. Interdisciplinary perspectives on whole school approaches to managing relationships.. Abingdon, Oxon & New York, pp. 59-74.

A Restorative Challenge: Can Citizenship Trump Identity in Northern Ireland? / Wilson, Derick.

Restorative Approaches to Conflict in Schools. Interdisciplinary perspectives on whole school approaches to managing relationships.. ed. / Gillean McCluskey; Ed Sellman; Hilary Cremin. Abingdon, Oxon & New York, 2013. p. 59-74.

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

TY - CHAP

T1 - A Restorative Challenge: Can Citizenship Trump Identity in Northern Ireland?

AU - Wilson, Derick

N1 - Reference text: Wright, F., (1987), Northern Ireland, A Comparative Analysis, Dublin: Gill & Macmillan. Eyben, K., Morrow, D., & Wilson, D A., (1997),A Worthwhile Venture-Practically Investing in Equity, Diversity and Interdependence in Northern Ireland? Coleraine: University of Ulster John Paul Lederach, From Truce to Transformation, www.nicrc.org.uk., Nov. 23, 2007,. p 6 {2 Jan 2013}. Consultative group on acknowledging the past, 2009, p.60 {Last accessed 31 December 2012} Morrow, D., Nobody's aspiration, everybody's predicament. British-Irish Association, Oriel College, 2004 http://www.community-relations.org.uk/about-the-council/background-info/nobodys-aspiration-everybodys-prcament) Last Accessed 25 Sept 2012. A . Jenkins, (2006) Shame, Realisation and Restitution-The ethics of restorative practice, ANZFJT, Vol 27, Number 3 2006. Pp 153-162). Wilson, 2010, Promoting Previously Unthinkable Ways, Paper for ESRC Seminar Series on Restorative Approaches to Conflict in Schools. http://www.educ.cam.ac.uk/research/projects/restorativeapproaches/ Healing through remembering, www.healingthroughremembering.info/, WAVE See http://www.wavetraumacentre.org.uk http://www.wavetraumacentre.org.uk/, http://www.nybooks.com/articles/archives/1986/feb/27/an-interview-with-czeslaw-milosz {31 Dec 20122] Consultative Group on Acknowledging the Past, 2009. http://www.number10.gov.uk/news/pm-statement-on-saville-inquiry/ {Last Accessed 25th Sept. 2012} Cota, D., & Gangadeen,T.G, (2010), John Jay College of Criminal Justice http://www.belfastcity.gov.uk/goodrelations/peaceIIIfunding.asp Edwards, M., (2004) Civil Society, Polity Press. Restorative Justice and Civil Society, eds: Strang and Braithwaite. (2001), Cambridge Univ. Press. Wilson, D. A, (1994),. Learning Together for a Change, Unpublished D Phil Thesis, Univ. of Ulster Library Eyben,K Morrow, D.,& Wilson, D.A. with Robinson, (2002), The Equity, Diversity and Interdependence Framework; A Programme for Organisational Change, University of Ulster. Girard, R. (1977) Violence and the Sacred, Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press. Wilson& Morrow. (1994) Way Out of Conflict, Belfast: Corrymeela Press. See also http://www.socsci.ulster.ac.uk/research/education/futureways/woc.pdf ; www.bbcnieyewitness for group learning materials Police Service for NI 2009-10/Race related crime http://www.psni.police.uk/3._hate_incidents_and_crimes_final.pdf. Shriver, D. (2005) Honest Patriots, New York: OUP Tyrell, G. & Wilson, D.A. (1995) Institutions for Conciliation and Mediation in Facets of the Conflict in Northern Ireland, ed.Dunn, S., Macmillan Press. Shriver, D. (2007) Truths for Reconciliation-An American Perspective NI Community Relations Council. http://www.community-relations.org.uk/about-us/news/item/125/an-ethic-for-enemies/?keywords=Donald+Shriver {2 Jan 2013} The Northern Ireland Juvenile Courts now has a mandatory restorative conferencing structure for all juveniles who plead guilty. Shriver, D. (2005) Honest Patriots, New York: OUP. p9. Wilson, D. A. & Eyben, K. (2006) Fit For Purpose?” Future Ways Programme, University of Ulster., p44, Eyben, K., Morrow, D., & Wilson, D A. (1997) A Worthwhile Venture-Practically Investing in Equity, Diversity and Interdependence in Northern Ireland? Coleraine: University of Ulster. A Shared Future. (2005) Belfast: OFMDFM. para 1. Lederach, J.P. (2007) From Truce to Transformation, www.nicrc.org.uk., Nov. 23, 2007. p 6 {2 Jan 2013}. Wilson D. A. Coming of Age at Last in Youth Studies Ireland, VOL. 2NO. 1 Spring / Summer 2007, p55 http://eprints.ulster.ac.uk/998/1/2._Coming_of_Age_at_last_PDF.pdf Pavlich, George. (2004) ‘Restorative Justice’s Community: Promise and Peril’, in Barb Toews and Howard Zehr (eds) Critical Issues in Restorative Justice, Criminal Justice Press. Ranjit Sondhi CBE Oxford Centre for Hindu Studies, 2004. http://www.ochs.org.uk/news/evening-ranjit-sondhi-cbe-launches-ochs-leicester Last accessed 2 Jan 2012 André Lascaris, (2008) Healing Europe, Dominicaans Studiecentrum voor Theologie en Samenleving, The Netherlands a.lascaris@hetnet.nl Eyben, Morrow & Wilson. (2002) The Equity, Diversity and Interdependence Framework: A Framework for Organisational Learning and Change. University of Ulster. 112 pp ISBN ISBN 1-85923-160-8, p25 Wilson, D A. ( 2009) Platforms for a Restorative Culture in Northern Ireland, www.restorativejustice.org, Equality and Good Relations Legislation, Section 75 (i) (ii), Northern Ireland Act, 1998. Montville, Joseph. 1990. Conflict and Peacemaking In Multiethnic Societies. Lexington, MA and Toronto: Lexington Books. Montville, Joseph. (1993) The Healing Function in Political Conflict Resolution. in Conflict Resolution Theory and Practice: Integration and Application, edited by Dennis J. D. Sandole and Hugo van der Merwe. New York: Manchester University Press. Lederach, John Paul (2003). The little book of conflict transformation. Intercourse, PA: Good Books Lederach, J. P. (2007) ‘Truce or Transformation, Belfast, www.nicrc.org. Towards Understanding and healing, www.thejunction-ni.org/towardsunderstandingandhealing.htm Fitzduff, M. (1987) From Ritual to Consciousness, D Phil Thesis, University of Ulster.. Wilson D. A. (2007) Coming of Age at Last in Youth Studies Ireland, VOL. 2 NO. 1 Spring / Summer Policing Our Divided Society, Mediation Northern Ireland & Future Ways Report to The International Commission on Policing in Northern Ireland (The Patten Commission),1998; Changing Police Culture, A Critical Dialogue Project, Morrow, Wilson, Mc Allister & Campbell. (2004) Mediation Northern Ireland & Future Ways, Unpublished, 2004 Civic Leadership- A Western Routes Programme Report, (2002) University of Ulster; Eyben, Keys & Wilson, 2006 A New Shape For One Of The Oldest Professions?” Politics and Civil Society, The Good Relations Task, Belfast City Council. Magill C.; Smith A. and B. Hamber (2009) The Role of Education in Reconciliation. A Report for the EU Peace and Reconciliation Fund. Coleraine, Ulster; Paper for Principals of Integrated Schools, NICIE, Wilson, D.A.2006 CCETSW(NI) (1999) Getting Off the Fence: Challenging Sectarianism in Personal Social Services, London: Belfast. Wilson, D. A., (2007) Coming of Age at Last in Youth Studies Ireland, VOL. 2NO. 1 Spring / Summer 2007, p55 {http://eprints.ulster.ac.uk/998/1/2._Coming_of_Age_at_last_PDF.pdf} Wilson, D.A., (2007) Probation Practice and Citizenship, Good Relations and the Emerging European Intercultural Agenda, Irish Probation Journal Marie Therese Fay, Mike Morrissey, Marie Smyth and Tracy Wong. (1999) The Cost of the Troubles Study. Report on the Northern Ireland Survey: the experience and impact of the Troubles Derry Londonderry: INCORE. ISBN 0-9533305-5-9 Paperback 161pp Shriver, 2005, Honest Patriots, New York: OUP. The works of Mc Donagh, Falconer, Smith, Morrow (J), Stevens, Leichty, Clegg, Mc Master & Higgins, Hurley, Davey, Barkley are some examples. Decentralize, adapt and cooperate, (2010) R. Sagarin, C. Alcorta, S. Atran, et al. Nature 465, 292-293. http://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/1998/47/contents. {Last accessed 30 Dec, 2012} Eyben, Morrow & Wilson, (2002) The Equity, Diversity and Interdependence Framework: A Framework for Organisational Learning and Change. University of Ulster. 112 pp ISBN ISBN 1-85923-160-8; Eyben, K. Wilson, D.A. & Morrow, D. J. (2003) Investing in Trust Building and Good Relations in a Public Sector Organisation. Coleraine, University of Ulster. (Reprinted May 2004) ISBN:1 85923 167 5;JEDI; CRED; Eyben, K. Wilson, D.A. & Morrow, D. J. (2003), Investing in Trust Building and Good Relations in a Public Sector Organisation. Coleraine, University of Ulster. (Reprinted May 2004) ISBN: 1 85923 167 5 Wilson et al, (2012) Understanding Works. Belfast: Understanding Conflict Trust Shriver, D. (2005) Honest Patriots, New York: OUP Connell, W.F. (1981) A History of Education in the 20th Century World, Teachers College Press. Wilson, D.A., 1994, Learning together for a change": the evolution of an educational model for cross-community meetings between adults in a divided society. D.Phil. Thesis, University of Ulster. http://www.etini.gov.uk/index/international-fund-for-irelands-sharing-in-education-programme.htm {2 Jan 2013}; http://www.qub.ac.uk/research-centres/CentreforSharedEducation/ {2 Jan 2013 http://www.ycni.org/downloads/CRED/cred_policy_doc1.pdf. Last accessed 30 Dec, 2012 Morrow, The Practice, Progress and Failings of Community Relations Work in Northern Ireland, IRISS Seminar Paper, May 2012. www.ulster.ac.uk/IRiSS See Changemakers Programme, Community Relations in Schools {http://www.cris-ni.org.uk/}; WIMPS. { http://wimps.tv/ 2 Jan 2013}. The Facing History Programme, The Corrymeela Community { http://www.corrymeela.org/programmes/our-programmes.aspx, 2 Jan 2013} The Northern Ireland Curriculum, http://www.nicurriculum.org.uk/ {Last accessed 30 Dec, 2012} www.niccy.org/ An organisation that promotes and safeguards the rights and best interests of children and young people. Zeldin, R. (2004) Youth-Adult Relationships in Community Programs: Diverse Perspectives on Good Practices, Journal of Community Psychology, Volume 33 Issue 1, Pages 121 – 135 Special Issue: Wiley Periodicals, Atran,S. Talking to the Enemy, 2010, New York,: Harper Collins.

PY - 2013/9

Y1 - 2013/9

N2 - Abstract: Northern Ireland was a space where it was impossible to experience anything that metropolitan societies called peace. The restorative task of nurturing new energy and vitality in relationships and structures has to acknowledge, but not be overwhelmed by, the potential of fear to invade, and even destroy, every potential meeting across lines of difference.The normal rituals of more secure societies that allow past and hurtful events to be both acknowledged and placed at a distance over time from day to day life do not work. As the society seeks to move on, through new political agreements and mutually owned institutions, it takes time and deep commitment to build new institutions and rituals that propel people forward and build mutual ownership and cohesion.A vortex of asymmetries of experience makes mutual understanding difficult. Some asymmetries are: historically there was asymmetrical access to the state internally and with the aligned cosmopolitan neighbours: there was a differential impact of the conflict on discrete groups of people in areas of need, some specific geographical areas and some specific types of employment; between those who want their hurt acknowledged and those who refuse to remember; and different groups demanding that the ‘others’ acknowledge their violence without them acknowledging their own. A restorative task is to promote spaces and relationships where people experience being at ease with different others. Such relational work is made much easier when supported by wider institutional structures promoting trust as a societal imperative and equal citizenship as a foundation.In ethnic frontier societies each does not often see the other as an equal citizen. Promoting liberating restorative experiences and knowledge is to: ‘to promote an ease with different others’; offer space to morally re-evaluate each tradition’s actions; promoting active experiences that carry the message that ‘change is possible’; acknowledging that dealing with the past is a task for more than the dispersed community of victims and survivors; and an understanding that truth telling, justice and empathy between diverse people can assist healing.Identities can become too localised, often limiting opportunity and imagination for adults and children alike. Local essentialism closes people to difference. Ethnocentric Irishness or Britishness has been easily tenable on the fringes of those historic cultures yet reflect little of the growing diversity at their centres. At this time, some secure states are now experiencing the growth of ethnocentric groups in their midst, with people unwilling to share with different others. Here equal citizenship is challenged and the ethnic frontier and the metropolitan centres have an opportunity to learn together. As citizens within an expanded Europe, there is a restorative historical healing necessary around Islamic, Christian and Jewish relations and more modern expressions of distrust and violence that links restorative reconciliation practice in Northern Ireland with central European ‘silences’ . Promoting good relations between people of different religious beliefs, political opinion, racial groups, sexual orientation, diverse abilities and social backgrounds are modern challenge for citizens in all societies, if they accept it. The challenge now is to promote a restorative civic and public culture that moves people beyond the important compliance base established in law to promote a commitment to treating all fairly and build a new culture of ease with different others. Building a more restorative culture in society is to work on a number of axes. These include: empowering voice, promoting new norms, discerning values at work and envisioning a shared society; and a restorative practice that supports people as they transgress limiting cultural boundaries and weave relationships between diverse people; supporting structural change, engaging politically and challenging civil society cultures to be more open and inclusive.

AB - Abstract: Northern Ireland was a space where it was impossible to experience anything that metropolitan societies called peace. The restorative task of nurturing new energy and vitality in relationships and structures has to acknowledge, but not be overwhelmed by, the potential of fear to invade, and even destroy, every potential meeting across lines of difference.The normal rituals of more secure societies that allow past and hurtful events to be both acknowledged and placed at a distance over time from day to day life do not work. As the society seeks to move on, through new political agreements and mutually owned institutions, it takes time and deep commitment to build new institutions and rituals that propel people forward and build mutual ownership and cohesion.A vortex of asymmetries of experience makes mutual understanding difficult. Some asymmetries are: historically there was asymmetrical access to the state internally and with the aligned cosmopolitan neighbours: there was a differential impact of the conflict on discrete groups of people in areas of need, some specific geographical areas and some specific types of employment; between those who want their hurt acknowledged and those who refuse to remember; and different groups demanding that the ‘others’ acknowledge their violence without them acknowledging their own. A restorative task is to promote spaces and relationships where people experience being at ease with different others. Such relational work is made much easier when supported by wider institutional structures promoting trust as a societal imperative and equal citizenship as a foundation.In ethnic frontier societies each does not often see the other as an equal citizen. Promoting liberating restorative experiences and knowledge is to: ‘to promote an ease with different others’; offer space to morally re-evaluate each tradition’s actions; promoting active experiences that carry the message that ‘change is possible’; acknowledging that dealing with the past is a task for more than the dispersed community of victims and survivors; and an understanding that truth telling, justice and empathy between diverse people can assist healing.Identities can become too localised, often limiting opportunity and imagination for adults and children alike. Local essentialism closes people to difference. Ethnocentric Irishness or Britishness has been easily tenable on the fringes of those historic cultures yet reflect little of the growing diversity at their centres. At this time, some secure states are now experiencing the growth of ethnocentric groups in their midst, with people unwilling to share with different others. Here equal citizenship is challenged and the ethnic frontier and the metropolitan centres have an opportunity to learn together. As citizens within an expanded Europe, there is a restorative historical healing necessary around Islamic, Christian and Jewish relations and more modern expressions of distrust and violence that links restorative reconciliation practice in Northern Ireland with central European ‘silences’ . Promoting good relations between people of different religious beliefs, political opinion, racial groups, sexual orientation, diverse abilities and social backgrounds are modern challenge for citizens in all societies, if they accept it. The challenge now is to promote a restorative civic and public culture that moves people beyond the important compliance base established in law to promote a commitment to treating all fairly and build a new culture of ease with different others. Building a more restorative culture in society is to work on a number of axes. These include: empowering voice, promoting new norms, discerning values at work and envisioning a shared society; and a restorative practice that supports people as they transgress limiting cultural boundaries and weave relationships between diverse people; supporting structural change, engaging politically and challenging civil society cultures to be more open and inclusive.

KW - Restorative practices

KW - Citizenship

KW - Identity

KW - Ethnic frontier

UR - http://catalogue.library.ulster.ac.uk/items/1372210?query=McCluskey+restorative&resultsUri=items%3Fquery%3DMcCluskey%2Brestorative

UR - http://catalogue.library.ulster.ac.uk/items/1372210?query=McCluskey+restorative&resultsUri=items%3Fquery%3DMcCluskey%2Brestorative

M3 - Chapter

SN - 978-0-415-65611-5

SP - 59

EP - 74

BT - Restorative Approaches to Conflict in Schools. Interdisciplinary perspectives on whole school approaches to managing relationships.

A2 - McCluskey, Gillean

A2 - Sellman, Ed

A2 - Cremin, Hilary

CY - Abingdon, Oxon & New York

ER -

Wilson D. A Restorative Challenge: Can Citizenship Trump Identity in Northern Ireland? In McCluskey G, Sellman E, Cremin H, editors, Restorative Approaches to Conflict in Schools. Interdisciplinary perspectives on whole school approaches to managing relationships.. Abingdon, Oxon & New York. 2013. p. 59-74