A Rapid Detection of Parkinson’s Disease using Smart Insoles: A Statistical and Machine Learning Approach

Research output: Contribution to conferencePaperpeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)
102 Downloads (Pure)
Original languageEnglish
Publication statusPublished (in print/issue) - 6 Dec 2022
Event2022 IEEE International Conference on Bioinformatics and Biomedicine (BIBM) - Las Vegas, NV, USA
Duration: 6 Dec 20228 Dec 2022


Conference2022 IEEE International Conference on Bioinformatics and Biomedicine (BIBM)

Bibliographical note

Determining whether a subject has a gait impairment due to a disease or to the loss of muscularity due to advancing age is fundamental for an early diagnosis of musculoskeletal diseases. Parkinson’s is the second most common neurodegenerative disease. The disease’s most prevalent symptom is slow movement or sluggish gait, which can adversely impact the individual’s quality of life. Generally, the gait analysis is carried out on long test sessions, which include for example long periods of walking, that cause inconvenience when the subjects under test have marked gait impairments. To help the diagnosis of Parkinson’s disease, in this study we investigated the classification o f Parkinson’s d isease by a nalysing only a few
seconds of walking data using smart insoles, statistical analysis and machine learning techniques. The data from the smart insoles was assessed using correlation analysis. By creating pressure groups and analysing their values, it was found that the number
of sensors could be reduced from 16 to 7. Furthermore, a feature vector representing the subject’s gait was created by applying on the data a time windowing segmentation of 5 seconds and extracting six statistical features (mean, variance, skewness,
kurtosis, energy and entropy). Four different models have been compared in terms of classification performance, reaching an F1- Score in the classification o f p atients w ith P arkinson’s against healthy subjects, considering adult and elderly subjects as two
separate classes, of 97.04% using the Random Forest. Such metric increased to 98.89%, using the K-Nearest Neighbours when healthy subjects were considered as a single class. The models’ performance for each experiment was determined to
be statistically equivalent, demonstrating the potential of this approach to provide the groundwork for the rapid detection of Parkinson’s disease. Although the performance obtained is promising the number of subjects included in the study was fairly
low, with a high bias towards the number of healthy subjects. Hence, in future work, the proposed solution will be tested on a larger cohort to ascertain its robustness.


  • Gait Analysis
  • Parkinson’s Disease
  • Machine Learning
  • Smart Insole

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