‘A Question of Identity? Purpose, Policy and practice in the Teaching of History in Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland

Alan McCully, Fionnuala Waldron

    Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

    Abstract

    This article traces the evolution of history education, north and south of the Irish border since partition of the island in 1921. It begins with an historical overview of the situation common across Ireland prior to partition. Subsequent developments in history provision in elementary, primary and early secondary education are traced in each of the two jurisdictions that emerged after partition, the Irish Free State, which became the Republic of Ireland, and Northern Ireland. In each case, the educational and political imperatives of each, which shaped these changes, and resulted in divergence, are identified, analysed and compared. Evidence is drawn from the dominant literature in each jurisdiction and on relevant curriculum documents. The paper concludes by demonstrating that in a post-modern, increasingly globalised world, shared educational ideas and political aspirations emerging from the Irish peace process are acting to bring the respective history curricula back into symmetry and, thereby, providing opportunities for increased co-operation.
    LanguageEnglish
    Title of host publicationIdentity, Trauma, Sensitive Issues in the Teaching of History
    EditorsHilary Cooper, Jon Nichol
    Place of PublicationNewcastle
    Pages2-24
    Publication statusPublished - 1 Oct 2015

    Fingerprint

    Ireland
    jurisdiction
    republic
    history of education
    curriculum
    peace process
    Teaching
    history
    secondary education
    divergence
    evidence
    literature

    Keywords

    • Ireland
    • History Education
    • National Identity
    • Education and Conflict

    Cite this

    McCully, A., & Waldron, F. (2015). ‘A Question of Identity? Purpose, Policy and practice in the Teaching of History in Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland. In H. Cooper, & J. Nichol (Eds.), Identity, Trauma, Sensitive Issues in the Teaching of History (pp. 2-24). Newcastle.
    McCully, Alan ; Waldron, Fionnuala. / ‘A Question of Identity? Purpose, Policy and practice in the Teaching of History in Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland. Identity, Trauma, Sensitive Issues in the Teaching of History. editor / Hilary Cooper ; Jon Nichol. Newcastle, 2015. pp. 2-24
    @inbook{0e4e82a46bdb4022834636fbaacfba6b,
    title = "‘A Question of Identity? Purpose, Policy and practice in the Teaching of History in Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland",
    abstract = "This article traces the evolution of history education, north and south of the Irish border since partition of the island in 1921. It begins with an historical overview of the situation common across Ireland prior to partition. Subsequent developments in history provision in elementary, primary and early secondary education are traced in each of the two jurisdictions that emerged after partition, the Irish Free State, which became the Republic of Ireland, and Northern Ireland. In each case, the educational and political imperatives of each, which shaped these changes, and resulted in divergence, are identified, analysed and compared. Evidence is drawn from the dominant literature in each jurisdiction and on relevant curriculum documents. The paper concludes by demonstrating that in a post-modern, increasingly globalised world, shared educational ideas and political aspirations emerging from the Irish peace process are acting to bring the respective history curricula back into symmetry and, thereby, providing opportunities for increased co-operation.",
    keywords = "Ireland, History Education, National Identity, Education and Conflict",
    author = "Alan McCully and Fionnuala Waldron",
    note = "Reference text: References Akenson, D.H. (1973) Education and Enmity 1920-50. Newton Abbot: David and Charles Akenson, D. H. (1975) A Mirror to Kathleen’s Face: Education in Independent Ireland 1922-1960. London: McGill-Queen’s University Press. Anderson, B. (1991) Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origins and Spread of Nationalism, London: Verso. Barton, K.C. (2001a) ‘“You’d be wanting to know about the past”: social contexts of children’s historical understanding in Northern Ireland and the United States’, Comparative Education, 37, pp. 89-106. Barton, K.C. (2001b) ‘A sociological perspective on children’s understanding of historical change: Comparative findings from northern Ireland and the United States’, American Educational Research Journal, 38, pp. 881-913. Barton, K.C. (2007a) ‘Primary children’s understanding of history in Northern Ireland and the United States’, in A. McCully (ed.), Recent Research on Teaching History in Northern Ireland: Informing Curriculum change, Coleraine: UNESCO Centre, University of Ulster, pp.11-13. Barton, K.C. (2007b) ‘Teachers, students and history education in Northern Ireland: a commentary on the research studies’, in A. McCully (ed.), Recent Research on Teaching History in Northern Ireland: Informing Curriculum Change, Coleraine: UNESCO Centre, University of Ulster, pp. 37-42. Barton, K. C. & McCully, A. W (2005) ‘History, Identity and the School History Curriculum in Northern Ireland: An Empirical Study of Secondary Students’ Ideas and Perspectives’, Journal of Curriculum Studies, 37(1), pp. 85-116. Barton, K.C. & McCully, A.W. (2010) “You can form your own point of view”: Internally persuasive discourse in Northern Ireland Students’ encounters with History, Teachers’ College Record,112(1), pp. 142-181 Bell, J., Hansson, U. & McCaffery, N. (2010)The Troubles Aren’t History Yet: Young People’s Understanding of the Past. Belfast: Community Relations Council. Brady, C. (Ed.). (1994) Interpreting Irish history: the debate on historical revisionism 1938-1994. Dublin: Irish Academic Press. Connolly, P. (1998) Early Years Anti-sectarian Television. Belfast: Community Relations Council. Council for Curriculum, Education and Assessment (2007) Environment and Society: History, CCEA, http://www.nicurriculum.org.uk/docs/key_stage_3/areas_of_learning/statutory_requirements/ks3_history.pdf. (Accessed 6/11/12) Conway, M. (2004) ‘Identifying the past: an exploration of teaching and learning sensitive issues in history at secondary school level’, Educate, 4(2). [Online at http://www.educatejournal.org/index.php/educate/issue/view/13] (Accessed 5/11/12) Coolahan, J. (1981) Irish Education: Its History and Structure. Dublin: Institute of Public Administration. Crowley, N. (1990) ‘The history syllabus’, in T. Crooks (ed.) The Changing Curriculum: Perspectives on the Junior Certificate. Dublin: O’Brien Educational. Daly, M. & O’Callaghan, M. (eds.) (2007) 1916 in 1966: Commemorating the Easter Rising. Dublin: Royal Irish Academy. Department of Education (1934) Notes for Teachers: History. Dublin: Stationery Office. Department of Education (1971a) Curaclamna Bunscoile: Primary School Curriculum,1. Dublin: Stationery Office. Department of Education (1971b) Curaclamna Bunscoile: Primary School Curriculum, 2. Dublin: Stationery Office. Department of Education (1983) Social and Environmental Studies: Report on the Implementation of the Primary School Curriculum. Dublin: Stationery Office. Department of Education and Science (2006) Looking at History: Teaching & Learning History in Post-Primary Schools. Dublin: Stationery Office Doherty, G. (1996) ‘National identity and the study of Irish history’, The English Historical Review, 111(441), pp. 324-349. Eivers, E., Shiel, G. & Cheevers, C. (2006) Implementing the Revised Junior Certificate Syllabus: What teachers said. Dublin: Department of Education and Science. FItzpatrick, D. (1991) ‘The futility of history: A failed experiment in Irish education’. In C. Brady (Ed.), Ideology and the Historians (168-186). Dublin: Lilliput Press. Giddens, A. (1991) Modernity and self-identity, self and society in the late modern age. Cambridge: Polity. Gleeson, J. (2012) ‘The professional knowledge base and practice of Irish post-primary teachers: what is the research evidence telling us?’, Irish Educational Studies, 31(1), pp. 1-17. Harland, J., KInder, K., Ashworth, M., Montgomery, A., Moor, H. & Wilkin, A. (1999) Real Curriculum: at the End of Key Stage 2. Report One from the Northern Ireland Curriculum Cohort Study. Slough: NFER. Hibernia (1962) ‘History teaching – purpose and method’, Hibernia, 26(4). Irish National Teachers Organisation (1996) Primary School Curriculum: An Evolutionary Process. Dublin: INTO. Jones, V. (1992) ‘The attitudes of the Church of Ireland Board of Education to textbooks in national schools, 1922-1967’, Irish Educational Studies, 11, pp.72-98. Kitson, A. (2007) ‘History Education and Reconciliation in Northern Ireland’, in E.A.Cole (ed.) Teaching the Violent Past: History Education and Reconciliation. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield. McCully, A. (2012) ‘History teaching, conflict and the legacy of the past’, Education, Citizenship and Social Justice, 7(2), pp.145-160. Motherway, A. (1986) ‘The textbook curriculum: the status and role of the textbook in the teaching of history and English at senior primary level’, Irish Educational Studies, 6(1), pp.193-203. Motherway, A. (1988) ‘Developing the history curriculum in the primary school’, Irish Educational Studies, 7(2), pp.35-46. Murray, D. (1985) Worlds Apart: Segregated Schools in Northern Ireland. Belfast: Appletree Press. Northern Ireland Council for Educational Development (1984) Guidelines for Primary Schools: History. Belfast: NICED. Northern Ireland Curriculum Council (1989) Education for Mutual Understanding: A Cross-curricular Theme, Report of the Cross Curricular Working Group on Education for Mutual Understanding to the Parliamentary Under Secretary of State for Education. Belfast: NICC. Northern Ireland Curriculum Council (1990) Proposals for History in the Northern Ireland Curriculum: Report of the Ministerial History Working Group. Belfast: NICC. O’Callaghan, J. (2009)Teaching Irish Independence: History in Irish Schools, 1922-72. Newcastle-upon-Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing. National Council for Curriculum and Assessment (1999) Primary School Curriculum: History. Dublin: NCCA. National Council for Curriculum and Assessment (2008a) Junior Certificate History: Draft Syllabus for Consultation. Retrieved 06.11.12 from http://www.ncca.ie/uploadedfiles/Junior{\%}20Cycle{\%}20Review/History_syll(2).pdf National Council for Curriculum and Assessment (2008b) Primary Curriculum Review, Phase 1: Final Report with Recommendations. Dublin: NCCA. National Council for Curriculum and Assessment (2008c) Primary Curriculum Review, Phase 2: Final Report with Recommendations. Dublin: NCCA. Phillips, R., Goalen, P., McCully, A. & Wood, S. (1999) ‘Four histories, one nation? History teaching, nationhood and a British identity’, Compare, 29(2),pp.153-169. Raftery, D., Harford, J., Valiulis, M. & Redmond, J. (2007) ‘”What's coming up in the exam?” A survey of teachers and the delivery of a gender-balanced curriculum’, Irish Educational Studies, 26(1), pp.107-117. Slater, J. (1995) Teaching History in the New Europe. London: Cassell. Study Group on the Teaching of History (1967) ‘The teaching of history in Irish schools’, Administration, 15, pp. 268-284. Sugrue, C. (1990) ‘Child-centred education in Ireland since 1971’,Oideas, 35, pp. 5-21. Tormey, R. (2006) ‘The construction of national identity through primary school history: the Irish case’, British Journal of Sociology of Education, 27(3), pp. 311-324. Waldron, F. (2004). ‘Making the Irish: identity and citizenship in the primary curriculum’, in C. Sugrue (ed.) Curriculum and Ideology: Irish Experiences International Perspectives, pp. 209-238. Dublin: Liffey Press. Waldron, F. & Pike, S. (2006). ‘What does it mean to be Irish? Children's construction of national identity’, Irish Educational Studies, 25(2), 231-251. Waldron, F., Pike, S., Greenwood, R., Murphy, C. M., O’Connor, G., Dolan, A. & Kerr, K. (2009) Becoming a Teacher: Primary Student Teachers as Learners and Teachers of History, Geography and Science. Armagh: Standing Conference on Teacher Education North and South. Walsh, T. (2012) Primary Education in Ireland, 1997-1990: Curriculum and Context. Bern: Peter Lang.",
    year = "2015",
    month = "10",
    day = "1",
    language = "English",
    isbn = "9781443880923",
    pages = "2--24",
    editor = "Hilary Cooper and Jon Nichol",
    booktitle = "Identity, Trauma, Sensitive Issues in the Teaching of History",

    }

    McCully, A & Waldron, F 2015, ‘A Question of Identity? Purpose, Policy and practice in the Teaching of History in Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland. in H Cooper & J Nichol (eds), Identity, Trauma, Sensitive Issues in the Teaching of History. Newcastle, pp. 2-24.

    ‘A Question of Identity? Purpose, Policy and practice in the Teaching of History in Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland. / McCully, Alan; Waldron, Fionnuala.

    Identity, Trauma, Sensitive Issues in the Teaching of History. ed. / Hilary Cooper; Jon Nichol. Newcastle, 2015. p. 2-24.

    Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

    TY - CHAP

    T1 - ‘A Question of Identity? Purpose, Policy and practice in the Teaching of History in Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland

    AU - McCully, Alan

    AU - Waldron, Fionnuala

    N1 - Reference text: References Akenson, D.H. (1973) Education and Enmity 1920-50. Newton Abbot: David and Charles Akenson, D. H. (1975) A Mirror to Kathleen’s Face: Education in Independent Ireland 1922-1960. London: McGill-Queen’s University Press. Anderson, B. (1991) Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origins and Spread of Nationalism, London: Verso. Barton, K.C. (2001a) ‘“You’d be wanting to know about the past”: social contexts of children’s historical understanding in Northern Ireland and the United States’, Comparative Education, 37, pp. 89-106. Barton, K.C. (2001b) ‘A sociological perspective on children’s understanding of historical change: Comparative findings from northern Ireland and the United States’, American Educational Research Journal, 38, pp. 881-913. Barton, K.C. (2007a) ‘Primary children’s understanding of history in Northern Ireland and the United States’, in A. McCully (ed.), Recent Research on Teaching History in Northern Ireland: Informing Curriculum change, Coleraine: UNESCO Centre, University of Ulster, pp.11-13. Barton, K.C. (2007b) ‘Teachers, students and history education in Northern Ireland: a commentary on the research studies’, in A. McCully (ed.), Recent Research on Teaching History in Northern Ireland: Informing Curriculum Change, Coleraine: UNESCO Centre, University of Ulster, pp. 37-42. Barton, K. C. & McCully, A. W (2005) ‘History, Identity and the School History Curriculum in Northern Ireland: An Empirical Study of Secondary Students’ Ideas and Perspectives’, Journal of Curriculum Studies, 37(1), pp. 85-116. Barton, K.C. & McCully, A.W. (2010) “You can form your own point of view”: Internally persuasive discourse in Northern Ireland Students’ encounters with History, Teachers’ College Record,112(1), pp. 142-181 Bell, J., Hansson, U. & McCaffery, N. (2010)The Troubles Aren’t History Yet: Young People’s Understanding of the Past. Belfast: Community Relations Council. Brady, C. (Ed.). (1994) Interpreting Irish history: the debate on historical revisionism 1938-1994. Dublin: Irish Academic Press. Connolly, P. (1998) Early Years Anti-sectarian Television. Belfast: Community Relations Council. Council for Curriculum, Education and Assessment (2007) Environment and Society: History, CCEA, http://www.nicurriculum.org.uk/docs/key_stage_3/areas_of_learning/statutory_requirements/ks3_history.pdf. (Accessed 6/11/12) Conway, M. (2004) ‘Identifying the past: an exploration of teaching and learning sensitive issues in history at secondary school level’, Educate, 4(2). [Online at http://www.educatejournal.org/index.php/educate/issue/view/13] (Accessed 5/11/12) Coolahan, J. (1981) Irish Education: Its History and Structure. Dublin: Institute of Public Administration. Crowley, N. (1990) ‘The history syllabus’, in T. Crooks (ed.) The Changing Curriculum: Perspectives on the Junior Certificate. Dublin: O’Brien Educational. Daly, M. & O’Callaghan, M. (eds.) (2007) 1916 in 1966: Commemorating the Easter Rising. Dublin: Royal Irish Academy. Department of Education (1934) Notes for Teachers: History. Dublin: Stationery Office. Department of Education (1971a) Curaclamna Bunscoile: Primary School Curriculum,1. Dublin: Stationery Office. Department of Education (1971b) Curaclamna Bunscoile: Primary School Curriculum, 2. Dublin: Stationery Office. Department of Education (1983) Social and Environmental Studies: Report on the Implementation of the Primary School Curriculum. Dublin: Stationery Office. Department of Education and Science (2006) Looking at History: Teaching & Learning History in Post-Primary Schools. Dublin: Stationery Office Doherty, G. (1996) ‘National identity and the study of Irish history’, The English Historical Review, 111(441), pp. 324-349. Eivers, E., Shiel, G. & Cheevers, C. (2006) Implementing the Revised Junior Certificate Syllabus: What teachers said. Dublin: Department of Education and Science. FItzpatrick, D. (1991) ‘The futility of history: A failed experiment in Irish education’. In C. Brady (Ed.), Ideology and the Historians (168-186). Dublin: Lilliput Press. Giddens, A. (1991) Modernity and self-identity, self and society in the late modern age. Cambridge: Polity. Gleeson, J. (2012) ‘The professional knowledge base and practice of Irish post-primary teachers: what is the research evidence telling us?’, Irish Educational Studies, 31(1), pp. 1-17. Harland, J., KInder, K., Ashworth, M., Montgomery, A., Moor, H. & Wilkin, A. (1999) Real Curriculum: at the End of Key Stage 2. Report One from the Northern Ireland Curriculum Cohort Study. Slough: NFER. Hibernia (1962) ‘History teaching – purpose and method’, Hibernia, 26(4). Irish National Teachers Organisation (1996) Primary School Curriculum: An Evolutionary Process. Dublin: INTO. Jones, V. (1992) ‘The attitudes of the Church of Ireland Board of Education to textbooks in national schools, 1922-1967’, Irish Educational Studies, 11, pp.72-98. Kitson, A. (2007) ‘History Education and Reconciliation in Northern Ireland’, in E.A.Cole (ed.) Teaching the Violent Past: History Education and Reconciliation. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield. McCully, A. (2012) ‘History teaching, conflict and the legacy of the past’, Education, Citizenship and Social Justice, 7(2), pp.145-160. Motherway, A. (1986) ‘The textbook curriculum: the status and role of the textbook in the teaching of history and English at senior primary level’, Irish Educational Studies, 6(1), pp.193-203. Motherway, A. (1988) ‘Developing the history curriculum in the primary school’, Irish Educational Studies, 7(2), pp.35-46. Murray, D. (1985) Worlds Apart: Segregated Schools in Northern Ireland. Belfast: Appletree Press. Northern Ireland Council for Educational Development (1984) Guidelines for Primary Schools: History. Belfast: NICED. Northern Ireland Curriculum Council (1989) Education for Mutual Understanding: A Cross-curricular Theme, Report of the Cross Curricular Working Group on Education for Mutual Understanding to the Parliamentary Under Secretary of State for Education. Belfast: NICC. Northern Ireland Curriculum Council (1990) Proposals for History in the Northern Ireland Curriculum: Report of the Ministerial History Working Group. Belfast: NICC. O’Callaghan, J. (2009)Teaching Irish Independence: History in Irish Schools, 1922-72. Newcastle-upon-Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing. National Council for Curriculum and Assessment (1999) Primary School Curriculum: History. Dublin: NCCA. National Council for Curriculum and Assessment (2008a) Junior Certificate History: Draft Syllabus for Consultation. Retrieved 06.11.12 from http://www.ncca.ie/uploadedfiles/Junior%20Cycle%20Review/History_syll(2).pdf National Council for Curriculum and Assessment (2008b) Primary Curriculum Review, Phase 1: Final Report with Recommendations. Dublin: NCCA. National Council for Curriculum and Assessment (2008c) Primary Curriculum Review, Phase 2: Final Report with Recommendations. Dublin: NCCA. Phillips, R., Goalen, P., McCully, A. & Wood, S. (1999) ‘Four histories, one nation? History teaching, nationhood and a British identity’, Compare, 29(2),pp.153-169. Raftery, D., Harford, J., Valiulis, M. & Redmond, J. (2007) ‘”What's coming up in the exam?” A survey of teachers and the delivery of a gender-balanced curriculum’, Irish Educational Studies, 26(1), pp.107-117. Slater, J. (1995) Teaching History in the New Europe. London: Cassell. Study Group on the Teaching of History (1967) ‘The teaching of history in Irish schools’, Administration, 15, pp. 268-284. Sugrue, C. (1990) ‘Child-centred education in Ireland since 1971’,Oideas, 35, pp. 5-21. Tormey, R. (2006) ‘The construction of national identity through primary school history: the Irish case’, British Journal of Sociology of Education, 27(3), pp. 311-324. Waldron, F. (2004). ‘Making the Irish: identity and citizenship in the primary curriculum’, in C. Sugrue (ed.) Curriculum and Ideology: Irish Experiences International Perspectives, pp. 209-238. Dublin: Liffey Press. Waldron, F. & Pike, S. (2006). ‘What does it mean to be Irish? Children's construction of national identity’, Irish Educational Studies, 25(2), 231-251. Waldron, F., Pike, S., Greenwood, R., Murphy, C. M., O’Connor, G., Dolan, A. & Kerr, K. (2009) Becoming a Teacher: Primary Student Teachers as Learners and Teachers of History, Geography and Science. Armagh: Standing Conference on Teacher Education North and South. Walsh, T. (2012) Primary Education in Ireland, 1997-1990: Curriculum and Context. Bern: Peter Lang.

    PY - 2015/10/1

    Y1 - 2015/10/1

    N2 - This article traces the evolution of history education, north and south of the Irish border since partition of the island in 1921. It begins with an historical overview of the situation common across Ireland prior to partition. Subsequent developments in history provision in elementary, primary and early secondary education are traced in each of the two jurisdictions that emerged after partition, the Irish Free State, which became the Republic of Ireland, and Northern Ireland. In each case, the educational and political imperatives of each, which shaped these changes, and resulted in divergence, are identified, analysed and compared. Evidence is drawn from the dominant literature in each jurisdiction and on relevant curriculum documents. The paper concludes by demonstrating that in a post-modern, increasingly globalised world, shared educational ideas and political aspirations emerging from the Irish peace process are acting to bring the respective history curricula back into symmetry and, thereby, providing opportunities for increased co-operation.

    AB - This article traces the evolution of history education, north and south of the Irish border since partition of the island in 1921. It begins with an historical overview of the situation common across Ireland prior to partition. Subsequent developments in history provision in elementary, primary and early secondary education are traced in each of the two jurisdictions that emerged after partition, the Irish Free State, which became the Republic of Ireland, and Northern Ireland. In each case, the educational and political imperatives of each, which shaped these changes, and resulted in divergence, are identified, analysed and compared. Evidence is drawn from the dominant literature in each jurisdiction and on relevant curriculum documents. The paper concludes by demonstrating that in a post-modern, increasingly globalised world, shared educational ideas and political aspirations emerging from the Irish peace process are acting to bring the respective history curricula back into symmetry and, thereby, providing opportunities for increased co-operation.

    KW - Ireland

    KW - History Education

    KW - National Identity

    KW - Education and Conflict

    M3 - Chapter

    SN - 9781443880923

    SP - 2

    EP - 24

    BT - Identity, Trauma, Sensitive Issues in the Teaching of History

    A2 - Cooper, Hilary

    A2 - Nichol, Jon

    CY - Newcastle

    ER -

    McCully A, Waldron F. ‘A Question of Identity? Purpose, Policy and practice in the Teaching of History in Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland. In Cooper H, Nichol J, editors, Identity, Trauma, Sensitive Issues in the Teaching of History. Newcastle. 2015. p. 2-24