This article considers semi-flexible composite (SFC) pavement materials made with reclaimed asphalt planings (RAP) and geopolymer cement-based grouts. Geopolymer grouts were developed and used to fill the internal void structure of coarse RAP skeletons with varying levels of porosity. The geopolymer grouts were formulated at ambient temperature using industrial by-products to offer economic and environmental savings relative to conventional Portland cement-based grouting systems. They were characterised on flowability, setting time, and compressive strength. The effect of grout and RAP on SFC material performance was evaluated using permeable porosity, compressive strength, and ultrasonic pulse velocity. SFC performance was significantly influenced by both grout type and RAP content. Improved performance was associated with mixtures of high-flowability/high-strength grout and low RAP content. A practical limitation was identified for combination of grout with low-flowability/fast-setting time and well-compacted RAP skeletons. Solids content exceeding 49% by volume was not feasible, owing to inadequate grout penetration. A suite of SFC materials was produced offering performance levels for a range of practical pavement applications. Preliminary relationships enabling prediction of SFC elastic modulus based on strength and/or ultrasonic pulse velocity test data are given. A pavement design is given using SFC as a sub-base layer for an industrial hardstanding.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
Acknowledgments: This research was supported and funded by Ulster University.
© 2020 by the authors.
Copyright 2020 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.
- Compressive strength
- Geopolymer grout
- Permeable porosity
- Reclaimed asphalt planing
- Semi-flexible pavement
- Ultrasonic pulse velocity
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