A novel DPP IV-resistant C-terminally extended glucagon analogue exhibits weight-lowering and diabetes-protective effects in high-fat-fed mice mediated through glucagon and GLP-1 receptor activation

AM Lynch, N Pathak, V Pathak, Finbarr O'Harte, Peter Flatt, Nigel Irwin, Victor Gault

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16 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Aims/hypothesisModification of the structure of glucagon could provide useful compounds for the potential treatment of obesity-related diabetes.
MethodsThis study evaluated N-acetyl-glucagon, (d-Ser2)glucagon and an analogue of (d-Ser2)glucagon with the addition of nine amino acids from the C-terminal of exendin(1-39), namely (d-Ser2)glucagon-exe.
ResultsAll analogues were resistant to dipeptidyl peptidase IV degradation. N-Acetyl-glucagon lacked acute insulinotropic effects in BRIN BD11 cells, whereas (d-Ser2)glucagon and (d-Ser2)glucagon-exe evoked significant (p < 0.001) insulin release. (d-Ser2)glucagon-exe stimulated cAMP production (p < 0.001) in glucagon- and GLP-1-receptor (GLP-1R)-transfected cells but not in glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide-receptor-transfected cells. In normal mice, N-acetyl-glucagon and (d-Ser2)glucagon retained glucagon-like effects of increasing (p < 0.001) plasma glucose and insulin levels. (d-Ser2)glucagon-exe was devoid of hyperglycaemic actions but substantially (p < 0.001) increased plasma insulin levels. (d-Ser2)glucagon-exe reduced the glycaemic excursion (p < 0.01) and increased the insulin secretory (p < 0.01) response following a glucose challenge 12 h after administration. Studies in GLP-1R knockout mice confirmed involvement of the GLP-1R pathway in the biological actions of (d-Ser2)glucagon-exe. Twice-daily administration of (d-Ser2)glucagon-exe to high-fat-fed mice for 28 days significantly (p < 0.05 to p < 0.001) reduced body weight, energy intake and non-fasting glucose levels, as well as increasing insulin concentrations. Glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity were significantly (p < 0.01) improved and energy expenditure, O2 consumption and locomotor activity were (p < 0.05 to p < 0.001) augmented. The metabolic benefits were accompanied by increases in pancreatic islet number (p < 0.001) and area (p < 0.05), as well as beta cell area (p < 0.05). Beneficial effects were largely retained for 14 days following cessation of treatment.
Conclusions/interpretationThis study emphasises the potential of (d-Ser2)glucagon-exe for the treatment of obesity-related diabetes.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1927-1936
Number of pages10
JournalDiabetologia
Volume57
Issue number9
Early online date25 Jun 2014
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 30 Sep 2014

Fingerprint

Glucagon
Fats
Weights and Measures
Insulin
Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Receptor
Glucose
Obesity
Dipeptidyl Peptidase 4
Withholding Treatment
Locomotion
Energy Intake
Islets of Langerhans
Knockout Mice
Energy Metabolism

Keywords

  • Diabetes
  • GLP-1
  • Glucagon
  • Glucagon-like peptide-1
  • Glucose tolerance
  • Obesity

Cite this

@article{2e88e20da3894d798f8523d102bde5e0,
title = "A novel DPP IV-resistant C-terminally extended glucagon analogue exhibits weight-lowering and diabetes-protective effects in high-fat-fed mice mediated through glucagon and GLP-1 receptor activation",
abstract = "Aims/hypothesisModification of the structure of glucagon could provide useful compounds for the potential treatment of obesity-related diabetes.MethodsThis study evaluated N-acetyl-glucagon, (d-Ser2)glucagon and an analogue of (d-Ser2)glucagon with the addition of nine amino acids from the C-terminal of exendin(1-39), namely (d-Ser2)glucagon-exe.ResultsAll analogues were resistant to dipeptidyl peptidase IV degradation. N-Acetyl-glucagon lacked acute insulinotropic effects in BRIN BD11 cells, whereas (d-Ser2)glucagon and (d-Ser2)glucagon-exe evoked significant (p < 0.001) insulin release. (d-Ser2)glucagon-exe stimulated cAMP production (p < 0.001) in glucagon- and GLP-1-receptor (GLP-1R)-transfected cells but not in glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide-receptor-transfected cells. In normal mice, N-acetyl-glucagon and (d-Ser2)glucagon retained glucagon-like effects of increasing (p < 0.001) plasma glucose and insulin levels. (d-Ser2)glucagon-exe was devoid of hyperglycaemic actions but substantially (p < 0.001) increased plasma insulin levels. (d-Ser2)glucagon-exe reduced the glycaemic excursion (p < 0.01) and increased the insulin secretory (p < 0.01) response following a glucose challenge 12 h after administration. Studies in GLP-1R knockout mice confirmed involvement of the GLP-1R pathway in the biological actions of (d-Ser2)glucagon-exe. Twice-daily administration of (d-Ser2)glucagon-exe to high-fat-fed mice for 28 days significantly (p < 0.05 to p < 0.001) reduced body weight, energy intake and non-fasting glucose levels, as well as increasing insulin concentrations. Glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity were significantly (p < 0.01) improved and energy expenditure, O2 consumption and locomotor activity were (p < 0.05 to p < 0.001) augmented. The metabolic benefits were accompanied by increases in pancreatic islet number (p < 0.001) and area (p < 0.05), as well as beta cell area (p < 0.05). Beneficial effects were largely retained for 14 days following cessation of treatment.Conclusions/interpretationThis study emphasises the potential of (d-Ser2)glucagon-exe for the treatment of obesity-related diabetes.",
keywords = "Diabetes, GLP-1, Glucagon, Glucagon-like peptide-1, Glucose tolerance, Obesity",
author = "AM Lynch and N Pathak and V Pathak and Finbarr O'Harte and Peter Flatt and Nigel Irwin and Victor Gault",
year = "2014",
month = "9",
day = "30",
doi = "10.1007/s00125-014-3296-7",
language = "English",
volume = "57",
pages = "1927--1936",
journal = "Diabetologia",
issn = "0012-186X",
number = "9",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - A novel DPP IV-resistant C-terminally extended glucagon analogue exhibits weight-lowering and diabetes-protective effects in high-fat-fed mice mediated through glucagon and GLP-1 receptor activation

AU - Lynch, AM

AU - Pathak, N

AU - Pathak, V

AU - O'Harte, Finbarr

AU - Flatt, Peter

AU - Irwin, Nigel

AU - Gault, Victor

PY - 2014/9/30

Y1 - 2014/9/30

N2 - Aims/hypothesisModification of the structure of glucagon could provide useful compounds for the potential treatment of obesity-related diabetes.MethodsThis study evaluated N-acetyl-glucagon, (d-Ser2)glucagon and an analogue of (d-Ser2)glucagon with the addition of nine amino acids from the C-terminal of exendin(1-39), namely (d-Ser2)glucagon-exe.ResultsAll analogues were resistant to dipeptidyl peptidase IV degradation. N-Acetyl-glucagon lacked acute insulinotropic effects in BRIN BD11 cells, whereas (d-Ser2)glucagon and (d-Ser2)glucagon-exe evoked significant (p < 0.001) insulin release. (d-Ser2)glucagon-exe stimulated cAMP production (p < 0.001) in glucagon- and GLP-1-receptor (GLP-1R)-transfected cells but not in glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide-receptor-transfected cells. In normal mice, N-acetyl-glucagon and (d-Ser2)glucagon retained glucagon-like effects of increasing (p < 0.001) plasma glucose and insulin levels. (d-Ser2)glucagon-exe was devoid of hyperglycaemic actions but substantially (p < 0.001) increased plasma insulin levels. (d-Ser2)glucagon-exe reduced the glycaemic excursion (p < 0.01) and increased the insulin secretory (p < 0.01) response following a glucose challenge 12 h after administration. Studies in GLP-1R knockout mice confirmed involvement of the GLP-1R pathway in the biological actions of (d-Ser2)glucagon-exe. Twice-daily administration of (d-Ser2)glucagon-exe to high-fat-fed mice for 28 days significantly (p < 0.05 to p < 0.001) reduced body weight, energy intake and non-fasting glucose levels, as well as increasing insulin concentrations. Glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity were significantly (p < 0.01) improved and energy expenditure, O2 consumption and locomotor activity were (p < 0.05 to p < 0.001) augmented. The metabolic benefits were accompanied by increases in pancreatic islet number (p < 0.001) and area (p < 0.05), as well as beta cell area (p < 0.05). Beneficial effects were largely retained for 14 days following cessation of treatment.Conclusions/interpretationThis study emphasises the potential of (d-Ser2)glucagon-exe for the treatment of obesity-related diabetes.

AB - Aims/hypothesisModification of the structure of glucagon could provide useful compounds for the potential treatment of obesity-related diabetes.MethodsThis study evaluated N-acetyl-glucagon, (d-Ser2)glucagon and an analogue of (d-Ser2)glucagon with the addition of nine amino acids from the C-terminal of exendin(1-39), namely (d-Ser2)glucagon-exe.ResultsAll analogues were resistant to dipeptidyl peptidase IV degradation. N-Acetyl-glucagon lacked acute insulinotropic effects in BRIN BD11 cells, whereas (d-Ser2)glucagon and (d-Ser2)glucagon-exe evoked significant (p < 0.001) insulin release. (d-Ser2)glucagon-exe stimulated cAMP production (p < 0.001) in glucagon- and GLP-1-receptor (GLP-1R)-transfected cells but not in glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide-receptor-transfected cells. In normal mice, N-acetyl-glucagon and (d-Ser2)glucagon retained glucagon-like effects of increasing (p < 0.001) plasma glucose and insulin levels. (d-Ser2)glucagon-exe was devoid of hyperglycaemic actions but substantially (p < 0.001) increased plasma insulin levels. (d-Ser2)glucagon-exe reduced the glycaemic excursion (p < 0.01) and increased the insulin secretory (p < 0.01) response following a glucose challenge 12 h after administration. Studies in GLP-1R knockout mice confirmed involvement of the GLP-1R pathway in the biological actions of (d-Ser2)glucagon-exe. Twice-daily administration of (d-Ser2)glucagon-exe to high-fat-fed mice for 28 days significantly (p < 0.05 to p < 0.001) reduced body weight, energy intake and non-fasting glucose levels, as well as increasing insulin concentrations. Glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity were significantly (p < 0.01) improved and energy expenditure, O2 consumption and locomotor activity were (p < 0.05 to p < 0.001) augmented. The metabolic benefits were accompanied by increases in pancreatic islet number (p < 0.001) and area (p < 0.05), as well as beta cell area (p < 0.05). Beneficial effects were largely retained for 14 days following cessation of treatment.Conclusions/interpretationThis study emphasises the potential of (d-Ser2)glucagon-exe for the treatment of obesity-related diabetes.

KW - Diabetes

KW - GLP-1

KW - Glucagon

KW - Glucagon-like peptide-1

KW - Glucose tolerance

KW - Obesity

UR - https://pure.ulster.ac.uk/en/publications/a-novel-dpp-iv-resistant-c-terminally-extended-glucagon-analogue--3

U2 - 10.1007/s00125-014-3296-7

DO - 10.1007/s00125-014-3296-7

M3 - Article

VL - 57

SP - 1927

EP - 1936

JO - Diabetologia

JF - Diabetologia

SN - 0012-186X

IS - 9

ER -