Background: Almost 50,000 men in the United Kingdom (UK) are diagnosed each year with prostate cancer (PCa). Secondary referrals for investigations rely on serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels and digital rectal examination. However, both tests lack sensitivity and specificity, resulting in unnecessary referrals to secondary care for costly and invasive biopsies. Materials and Methods: Serum samples and clinical information were collected from N = 125 age-matched patients (n = 61 non-PCa and n = 64 PCa) and analyzed using Biochip Array Technology on high-sensitivity cytokine array I (IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-1α, IL-1β, TNFα, MCP-1, INFγ, EGF, and VEGF), cerebral array II (CRP, D-dimer, neuron-specific enolase, and sTNFR1), and tumor PSA oncology array (fPSA, tPSA, and CEA). Results: The data showed that 11/19 (68.8%) markers were significantly different between the non-PCa and the PCa patients. A combination of EGF, log 10 IL-8, log 10 MCP-1, and log 10 tPSA significantly improved the predictive potential of tPSA alone to identify patients with PCa (DeLong, p < 0.001). This marker combination had an increased area under the receiver operator characteristic (0.860 vs. 0.700), sensitivity (78.7 vs. 68.9%), specificity (76.5 vs. 67.2%), PPV (76.2 vs. 66.7%), and NPV (79.0 vs. 69.4%) compared with tPSA. Conclusions: The novel combination of serum markers identified in this study could be employed to help triage patients into “low-” and “high-risk” categories, allowing general practitioners to improve the management of patients in primary care settings and potentially reducing the number of referrals for unnecessary, invasive, and costly treatments.
|Number of pages||8|
|Journal||Frontiers in Oncology|
|Publication status||Published (in print/issue) - 19 May 2022|
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
The authors declare that this study received funding from Randox Laboratories Ltd as part of the Randox Laboratories Ltd – Ulster University PhD Academy Studentship. Randox had the following involvement in the study: analysis of patient samples, statistical analysis, supervision of the project, preparation of the manuscript, and the decision to publish.
Copyright © 2022 McNally, Watt, Kurth, Lamont, Moore, Fitzgerald, Pandha, McKenna and Ruddock.
- prostate cancer