Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and cholecystokinin (CCK) exert important complementary beneficial metabolic effects. This study assessed the biological actions and therapeutic utility of a novel (pGlu-Gln)-CCK-8/exendin-4 hybrid peptide compared with the stable GLP-1 and CCK mimetics exendin-4 and (pGlu-Gln)-CCK-8, respectively. All peptides significantly enhanced in vitro insulin secretion. Administration of the peptides, except (pGlu-Gln)-CCK-8 alone, in combination with glucose significantly lowered plasma glucose and increased plasma insulin in mice. All treatments elicited appetite-suppressive effects. Twice-daily administration of the novel (pGlu-Gln)-CCK-8/exendin-4 hybrid, (pGlu-Gln)-CCK-8 alone, or (pGlu-Gln)-CCK-8 in combination with exendin-4 for 21 days to high-fat–fed mice significantly decreased energy intake, body weight, and circulating plasma glucose. HbA1c was reduced in the (pGlu-Gln)-CCK-8/exendin-4 hybrid and combined parent peptide treatment groups. Glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity also were improved by all treatment modalities. Interestingly, locomotor activity was decreased in the hybrid peptide group, and these mice also exhibited reductions in circulating triglyceride and cholesterol levels. Pancreatic islet number and area, as well β-cell area and insulinotropic responsiveness, were dramatically improved by all treatments. These studies highlight the clear potential of dual activation of GLP-1 and CCK1 receptors for the treatment of type 2 diabetes.
- high fat feeding