Enterococci and biofilm-associated infections are a growing problem worldwide, given the rise in antibiotic resistance in environmental and clinical settings. The increasing incidence of antibiotic resistance and its propagation potential within enterococcal biofilm is a concern. This requires a deeper understanding of how enterococcal biofilm develops, and how antibiotic resistance transfer takes place in these biofilms. Enterococcal biofilm assays, incorporating the study of antibiotic resistance transfer, require a system which can accommodate non-destructive, real-time experimentation. We adapted a Gene Frame® combined with fluorescence microscopy as a novel non-destructive platform to study the conjugal transfer of vancomycin resistance in an established enterococcal biofilm.A multi-purpose fluorescent in situ hybridisation (FISH) probe, in a novel application, allowed the identification of low copy number mobile elements in the biofilm. Furthermore, a Hoechst stain and ENU 1470 FISH probe identified Enterococcus faecium transconjugants by excluding Enterococcus faecalis MF06036 donors. Biofilm created with a rifampicin resistant E. faecalis (MW01105Rif) recipient had a transfer efficiency of 2.01 × 10−3; double that of the biofilm primarily created by the donor (E. faecalis MF06036). Conjugation in the mixed enterococcal biofilm was triple the efficiency of donor biofilm. Double antibiotic treatment plus lysozyme combined with live/dead imaging provided fluorescent micrographs identifying de novo enterococcal vancomycin resistant transconjugants inside the biofilm. This is a model system for the further study of antibiotic resistance transfer events in enterococci. Biofilms promote the survival of enterococci and reduce the effectiveness of drug treatment in clinical settings, hence giving enterococci an advantage. Enterococci growing in biofilms exchange traits by means of horizontal gene transfer, but currently available models make study difficult. This work goes some way to providing a non-destructive, molecular imaging-based model system for the detection of antibiotic resistance gene transfer in enterococci.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
The authors acknowledge the support of the Department of the Economy NI. MC was the recipient of a DEL PhD studentship.
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- antibiotic resistance