A new three-component formulation for the efficient whitening of teeth (Carbamide Plus)

Barry Hyland, A. McDonald, N. Lewis, C. Tredwin, A. Petrie, S. Hall, C. Todd, Bridgeen McCaughan, J Callan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

12 Citations (Scopus)


Objectives: This study aimed to develop and characterise a new three-component dental whitening formulation which is as effective as the currently used carbamide peroxide but at significantly lower hydrogen peroxide concentrations. Materials and methods: The new formulation (Carbamide Plus) was prepared containing hydrogen peroxide, urea, and sodium tripolyphosphate and compared directly with carbamide peroxide (containing just hydrogen peroxide and urea). To evaluate the clinical effectiveness of 5 Carbamide Plus, a randomised double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial was conducted comparing the tooth colour of 33 patients using L*a*b* scores at baseline and after a 2-week whitening treatment. The behaviour of the three components in solution was determined by 1H and 31P NMR spectroscopy and pH dilution experiments. Results: This clinical trial revealed that 5 whitening gels containing Carbamide Plus were as effective as those containing 10 carbamide peroxide. 1H and 31P NMR spectroscopy revealed strong intermolecular interactions between hydrogen peroxide and both urea and sodium tripolyphosphate (STPP) with little apparent interaction between urea and STPP. Conclusions: In this manuscript, we postulate that this increased whitening efficiency is due to a marked increase in local pH upon dilution which destabilises the hydrogen peroxide and expedites the whitening process. We postulate Carbamide Plus to be a three-component adduct with two molecules of carbamide peroxide binding to a central STPP unit with no direct interaction between STPP and urea. There were no statistically significant differences between Carbamide Plus and 10 carbamide peroxide in tooth-whitening achieved at 2 weeks. These results were recorded following 2 weeks of 2-h daily wear of at-home trays. Clinical relevance: Carbamide Plus offers the potential of using significantly lower levels of hydrogen peroxide concentration to achieve similar dental whitening effects. © 2014, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1395-1404
JournalClinical Oral Investigations
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished (in print/issue) - 2015


  • teeth whitening


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