A METHOD OF QUANTIFYING TORSO SHAPE TO ASSESS ITS INFLUENCE ON RESISTIVE DRAG IN SWIMMING

Christopher Papic, Carla McCabe, Ross Sanders

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Abstract

Morphology of a swimmer influences the external resistance to forward motion (hydrodynamic resistance). The torso represents the largest body mass segment and characteristics such as cross-sectional area perpendicular to the direction of swimming and curvatures and indentations influence the pressure distribution of fluid as it flows around the torso. The purpose of this study was to introduce a new method of quantifying torso shape using photographic imaging. The contours of the torso in the frontal and sagittal planes were obtained by tracing photographs of the swimmers taken from the front and side respectively. The anterior, posterior and lateral flow lines outlines were interpolated to samples spaced at 1mm vertically and used to determine continuous form gradients of four elite male swimmers. Cross sectional areas of the torso at each vertical sample were estimated by modelling the cross section as an ellipse. The maximum rate of change in cross-sectional area (m2) was then estimated from chest to waist and waist to hip. The method may be used detect differences in torso shape between swimmers in a practical and ‘user friendly’ manner. The implications and direction for future research to determine the influence of the torso on hydrodynamic resistance in free swimming and in the streamlined body position are described.
LanguageEnglish
Title of host publicationInternational Society of Biomechanics
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 14 Mar 2019

Fingerprint

torso
waist
hydrodynamics
methodology
chest
hips
photographs
image analysis
sampling

Keywords

  • Fluid dynamics
  • Anthropometry
  • Drag force

Cite this

Papic, C., McCabe, C., & Sanders, R. (Accepted/In press). A METHOD OF QUANTIFYING TORSO SHAPE TO ASSESS ITS INFLUENCE ON RESISTIVE DRAG IN SWIMMING. In International Society of Biomechanics
Papic, Christopher ; McCabe, Carla ; Sanders, Ross. / A METHOD OF QUANTIFYING TORSO SHAPE TO ASSESS ITS INFLUENCE ON RESISTIVE DRAG IN SWIMMING. International Society of Biomechanics. 2019.
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abstract = "Morphology of a swimmer influences the external resistance to forward motion (hydrodynamic resistance). The torso represents the largest body mass segment and characteristics such as cross-sectional area perpendicular to the direction of swimming and curvatures and indentations influence the pressure distribution of fluid as it flows around the torso. The purpose of this study was to introduce a new method of quantifying torso shape using photographic imaging. The contours of the torso in the frontal and sagittal planes were obtained by tracing photographs of the swimmers taken from the front and side respectively. The anterior, posterior and lateral flow lines outlines were interpolated to samples spaced at 1mm vertically and used to determine continuous form gradients of four elite male swimmers. Cross sectional areas of the torso at each vertical sample were estimated by modelling the cross section as an ellipse. The maximum rate of change in cross-sectional area (m2) was then estimated from chest to waist and waist to hip. The method may be used detect differences in torso shape between swimmers in a practical and ‘user friendly’ manner. The implications and direction for future research to determine the influence of the torso on hydrodynamic resistance in free swimming and in the streamlined body position are described.",
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Papic, C, McCabe, C & Sanders, R 2019, A METHOD OF QUANTIFYING TORSO SHAPE TO ASSESS ITS INFLUENCE ON RESISTIVE DRAG IN SWIMMING. in International Society of Biomechanics.

A METHOD OF QUANTIFYING TORSO SHAPE TO ASSESS ITS INFLUENCE ON RESISTIVE DRAG IN SWIMMING. / Papic, Christopher; McCabe, Carla; Sanders, Ross.

International Society of Biomechanics. 2019.

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

TY - GEN

T1 - A METHOD OF QUANTIFYING TORSO SHAPE TO ASSESS ITS INFLUENCE ON RESISTIVE DRAG IN SWIMMING

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AU - McCabe, Carla

AU - Sanders, Ross

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N2 - Morphology of a swimmer influences the external resistance to forward motion (hydrodynamic resistance). The torso represents the largest body mass segment and characteristics such as cross-sectional area perpendicular to the direction of swimming and curvatures and indentations influence the pressure distribution of fluid as it flows around the torso. The purpose of this study was to introduce a new method of quantifying torso shape using photographic imaging. The contours of the torso in the frontal and sagittal planes were obtained by tracing photographs of the swimmers taken from the front and side respectively. The anterior, posterior and lateral flow lines outlines were interpolated to samples spaced at 1mm vertically and used to determine continuous form gradients of four elite male swimmers. Cross sectional areas of the torso at each vertical sample were estimated by modelling the cross section as an ellipse. The maximum rate of change in cross-sectional area (m2) was then estimated from chest to waist and waist to hip. The method may be used detect differences in torso shape between swimmers in a practical and ‘user friendly’ manner. The implications and direction for future research to determine the influence of the torso on hydrodynamic resistance in free swimming and in the streamlined body position are described.

AB - Morphology of a swimmer influences the external resistance to forward motion (hydrodynamic resistance). The torso represents the largest body mass segment and characteristics such as cross-sectional area perpendicular to the direction of swimming and curvatures and indentations influence the pressure distribution of fluid as it flows around the torso. The purpose of this study was to introduce a new method of quantifying torso shape using photographic imaging. The contours of the torso in the frontal and sagittal planes were obtained by tracing photographs of the swimmers taken from the front and side respectively. The anterior, posterior and lateral flow lines outlines were interpolated to samples spaced at 1mm vertically and used to determine continuous form gradients of four elite male swimmers. Cross sectional areas of the torso at each vertical sample were estimated by modelling the cross section as an ellipse. The maximum rate of change in cross-sectional area (m2) was then estimated from chest to waist and waist to hip. The method may be used detect differences in torso shape between swimmers in a practical and ‘user friendly’ manner. The implications and direction for future research to determine the influence of the torso on hydrodynamic resistance in free swimming and in the streamlined body position are described.

KW - Fluid dynamics

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KW - Drag force

M3 - Conference contribution

BT - International Society of Biomechanics

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Papic C, McCabe C, Sanders R. A METHOD OF QUANTIFYING TORSO SHAPE TO ASSESS ITS INFLUENCE ON RESISTIVE DRAG IN SWIMMING. In International Society of Biomechanics. 2019