Strong early Holocene crustal uplift over the Spitsbergen archipelago reflects disappearance of an ice mass centred just north-east of the archipelago and which decayed rapidly just after 10,000 BP after a maximum extension between 12,600 and 10,000 BP. From the lithofacies distributions associated with these events a glacio-isostatic facies model can be defined which, combined with analyses of amino acid racemization, provides a valuable stratigraphic method for correlating pre-Holocene glacio-isostatic events. These are correlated with events in Greenland, and both are contrasted with Weichselian glacial events at the southern margins of the two great Northern Hemisphere ice sheets and with contemporary water mass changes in the North Atlantic and Norwegian Sea. The geographical variation in glacier response through time is explained by three principal climatic circulation patterns.
BOULTON, GS., BALDWIN, CT., PEACOCK, JD., MCCABE, AM., MILLER, G., JARVIS, J., ... VONBRUNN, V. (1982). A glacio-isostatic facies model and amino acid stratigraphy for late Quaternary events in Spitsbergen and the Arctic. Nature, 298(5873), 437-441. https://doi.org/10.1038/298437a0