A family of antimicrobial and immunomodulatory peptides related to the frenatins from skin secretions of the Orinoco lime frog Sphaenorhynchus lacteus (Hylidae)

J. Michael Conlon, Milena Mechkarska, Gordana Radosavljevic, Samir Attoub, Jay D. King, Miodrag L. Lukic, Stephen McClean

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

16 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Peptidomic analysis of norepinephrine-stimulated skin secretions of the Orinoco lime tree frog Sphaenorhynchus lacteus (Hylidae, Hylinae) revealed the presence of three structurally related host-defense peptides with limited sequence similarity to frenatin 2 from Litoria infrafrenata (Hylidae, Pelodryadinae) and frenatin 2D from Discoglossus sardus (Alytidae). Frenatin 2.1S (GLVGTLLGHIGKAILG.NH2) and frenatin 2.2S (GLVGTLLGHIGKAILS.NH2) are C-terminally α-amidated but frenatin 2.3S (GLVGTLLGHIGKAILG) is not. Frenatin 2.1S and 2.2S show potent bactericidal activity against clinical isolates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Staphylococcus epidermidis (MIC ≤16 μM) but are less active against a range of Gram-negative bacteria. Frenatin 2.1S (LC50 = 80 ± 6 μM) and 2.2S (LC50 = 75 ± 5 μM) are cytotoxic against non-small cell lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells but are less hemolytic against human erythrocytes (LC50 = 167 ± 8 μM for frenatin 2.1S and 169 ± 7 μM for 2.2S). Weak antimicrobial and cytotoxic potencies of frenatin 2.3S demonstrate the importance of C-terminal α-amidation for activity. Frenatin 2.1S and 2.2S significantly (P <0.05) increased production of proinflammatory cytokines IL-1β and IL-23 by lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated mouse peritoneal macrophages and frenatin 2.1S also enhanced production of TNF-α. Effects on IL-6 production were not significant. Frenatin 2.2S significantly downregulated production of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 by LPS-stimulated cells. The data support speculation that frenatins act on skin macrophages to produce a cytokine-mediated stimulation of the adaptive immune system in response to invasion by microorganisms. They may represent a template for the design of peptides with therapeutic applications as immunostimulatory agents.
LanguageEnglish
Pages132 - 140
JournalPeptides
Volume56
Issue number0
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2014

Fingerprint

Anura
Cytokines
Skin
Peptides
Lipopolysaccharides
Interleukin-23
Staphylococcus epidermidis
Peritoneal Macrophages
Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus
Gram-Negative Bacteria
Interleukin-10
Immune System
Interleukin-6
Norepinephrine
Anti-Inflammatory Agents
Down-Regulation
Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
Erythrocytes
Macrophages
lime

Keywords

  • Cytokine

Cite this

Conlon, J. Michael ; Mechkarska, Milena ; Radosavljevic, Gordana ; Attoub, Samir ; King, Jay D. ; Lukic, Miodrag L. ; McClean, Stephen. / A family of antimicrobial and immunomodulatory peptides related to the frenatins from skin secretions of the Orinoco lime frog Sphaenorhynchus lacteus (Hylidae). In: Peptides. 2014 ; Vol. 56, No. 0. pp. 132 - 140.
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abstract = "Peptidomic analysis of norepinephrine-stimulated skin secretions of the Orinoco lime tree frog Sphaenorhynchus lacteus (Hylidae, Hylinae) revealed the presence of three structurally related host-defense peptides with limited sequence similarity to frenatin 2 from Litoria infrafrenata (Hylidae, Pelodryadinae) and frenatin 2D from Discoglossus sardus (Alytidae). Frenatin 2.1S (GLVGTLLGHIGKAILG.NH2) and frenatin 2.2S (GLVGTLLGHIGKAILS.NH2) are C-terminally α-amidated but frenatin 2.3S (GLVGTLLGHIGKAILG) is not. Frenatin 2.1S and 2.2S show potent bactericidal activity against clinical isolates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Staphylococcus epidermidis (MIC ≤16 μM) but are less active against a range of Gram-negative bacteria. Frenatin 2.1S (LC50 = 80 ± 6 μM) and 2.2S (LC50 = 75 ± 5 μM) are cytotoxic against non-small cell lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells but are less hemolytic against human erythrocytes (LC50 = 167 ± 8 μM for frenatin 2.1S and 169 ± 7 μM for 2.2S). Weak antimicrobial and cytotoxic potencies of frenatin 2.3S demonstrate the importance of C-terminal α-amidation for activity. Frenatin 2.1S and 2.2S significantly (P <0.05) increased production of proinflammatory cytokines IL-1β and IL-23 by lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated mouse peritoneal macrophages and frenatin 2.1S also enhanced production of TNF-α. Effects on IL-6 production were not significant. Frenatin 2.2S significantly downregulated production of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 by LPS-stimulated cells. The data support speculation that frenatins act on skin macrophages to produce a cytokine-mediated stimulation of the adaptive immune system in response to invasion by microorganisms. They may represent a template for the design of peptides with therapeutic applications as immunostimulatory agents.",
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A family of antimicrobial and immunomodulatory peptides related to the frenatins from skin secretions of the Orinoco lime frog Sphaenorhynchus lacteus (Hylidae). / Conlon, J. Michael; Mechkarska, Milena; Radosavljevic, Gordana; Attoub, Samir; King, Jay D.; Lukic, Miodrag L.; McClean, Stephen.

In: Peptides, Vol. 56, No. 0, 2014, p. 132 - 140.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - A family of antimicrobial and immunomodulatory peptides related to the frenatins from skin secretions of the Orinoco lime frog Sphaenorhynchus lacteus (Hylidae)

AU - Conlon, J. Michael

AU - Mechkarska, Milena

AU - Radosavljevic, Gordana

AU - Attoub, Samir

AU - King, Jay D.

AU - Lukic, Miodrag L.

AU - McClean, Stephen

PY - 2014

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N2 - Peptidomic analysis of norepinephrine-stimulated skin secretions of the Orinoco lime tree frog Sphaenorhynchus lacteus (Hylidae, Hylinae) revealed the presence of three structurally related host-defense peptides with limited sequence similarity to frenatin 2 from Litoria infrafrenata (Hylidae, Pelodryadinae) and frenatin 2D from Discoglossus sardus (Alytidae). Frenatin 2.1S (GLVGTLLGHIGKAILG.NH2) and frenatin 2.2S (GLVGTLLGHIGKAILS.NH2) are C-terminally α-amidated but frenatin 2.3S (GLVGTLLGHIGKAILG) is not. Frenatin 2.1S and 2.2S show potent bactericidal activity against clinical isolates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Staphylococcus epidermidis (MIC ≤16 μM) but are less active against a range of Gram-negative bacteria. Frenatin 2.1S (LC50 = 80 ± 6 μM) and 2.2S (LC50 = 75 ± 5 μM) are cytotoxic against non-small cell lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells but are less hemolytic against human erythrocytes (LC50 = 167 ± 8 μM for frenatin 2.1S and 169 ± 7 μM for 2.2S). Weak antimicrobial and cytotoxic potencies of frenatin 2.3S demonstrate the importance of C-terminal α-amidation for activity. Frenatin 2.1S and 2.2S significantly (P <0.05) increased production of proinflammatory cytokines IL-1β and IL-23 by lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated mouse peritoneal macrophages and frenatin 2.1S also enhanced production of TNF-α. Effects on IL-6 production were not significant. Frenatin 2.2S significantly downregulated production of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 by LPS-stimulated cells. The data support speculation that frenatins act on skin macrophages to produce a cytokine-mediated stimulation of the adaptive immune system in response to invasion by microorganisms. They may represent a template for the design of peptides with therapeutic applications as immunostimulatory agents.

AB - Peptidomic analysis of norepinephrine-stimulated skin secretions of the Orinoco lime tree frog Sphaenorhynchus lacteus (Hylidae, Hylinae) revealed the presence of three structurally related host-defense peptides with limited sequence similarity to frenatin 2 from Litoria infrafrenata (Hylidae, Pelodryadinae) and frenatin 2D from Discoglossus sardus (Alytidae). Frenatin 2.1S (GLVGTLLGHIGKAILG.NH2) and frenatin 2.2S (GLVGTLLGHIGKAILS.NH2) are C-terminally α-amidated but frenatin 2.3S (GLVGTLLGHIGKAILG) is not. Frenatin 2.1S and 2.2S show potent bactericidal activity against clinical isolates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Staphylococcus epidermidis (MIC ≤16 μM) but are less active against a range of Gram-negative bacteria. Frenatin 2.1S (LC50 = 80 ± 6 μM) and 2.2S (LC50 = 75 ± 5 μM) are cytotoxic against non-small cell lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells but are less hemolytic against human erythrocytes (LC50 = 167 ± 8 μM for frenatin 2.1S and 169 ± 7 μM for 2.2S). Weak antimicrobial and cytotoxic potencies of frenatin 2.3S demonstrate the importance of C-terminal α-amidation for activity. Frenatin 2.1S and 2.2S significantly (P <0.05) increased production of proinflammatory cytokines IL-1β and IL-23 by lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated mouse peritoneal macrophages and frenatin 2.1S also enhanced production of TNF-α. Effects on IL-6 production were not significant. Frenatin 2.2S significantly downregulated production of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 by LPS-stimulated cells. The data support speculation that frenatins act on skin macrophages to produce a cytokine-mediated stimulation of the adaptive immune system in response to invasion by microorganisms. They may represent a template for the design of peptides with therapeutic applications as immunostimulatory agents.

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