A Durability Performance Index for Concrete: Developments in a Novel Test Method

John McCarter, Malcolm Chrisp, Gerry Starrs, Muhammed Basheer, Sreejith Nanukuttan, Srinivasan Sudarshan, Bryan Magee

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

5 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Implementation of both design for durability and performance-basedstandards and specifications are limited by the lack of rapid, simple, sciencebasedtest methods for characterising the transport properties and deteriorationresistance of concrete. This paper presents developments in the application ofelectrical property measurements as a testing methodology to evaluate therelative performance of a range of concrete mixes. The technique lends itself toin-situ monitoring thereby allowing measurements to be obtained on theas-placed concrete. Conductivity measurements are presented for concreteswith and without supplementary cementitious materials (SCM’s) fromdemoulding up to 350 days. It is shown that electrical conductivitymeasurements display a continual decrease over the entire test period andattributed to pore structure refinement due to hydration and pozzolanicreaction. The term formation factor is introduced to rank concrete performancein terms of is resistance to chloride penetration.
LanguageEnglish
Pages2-22
JournalInt. J. Structural Engineering
Volume6
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2015

Fingerprint

Durability
Concretes
Concrete mixtures
Pore structure
Hydration
Transport properties
Specifications
Monitoring
Testing

Keywords

  • Concrete
  • cover-zone
  • durability
  • performance testing
  • monitoring
  • electrical conductivity
  • formation factor.

Cite this

McCarter, John ; Chrisp, Malcolm ; Starrs, Gerry ; Basheer, Muhammed ; Nanukuttan, Sreejith ; Sudarshan, Srinivasan ; Magee, Bryan. / A Durability Performance Index for Concrete: Developments in a Novel Test Method. In: Int. J. Structural Engineering. 2015 ; Vol. 6, No. 1. pp. 2-22.
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title = "A Durability Performance Index for Concrete: Developments in a Novel Test Method",
abstract = "Implementation of both design for durability and performance-basedstandards and specifications are limited by the lack of rapid, simple, sciencebasedtest methods for characterising the transport properties and deteriorationresistance of concrete. This paper presents developments in the application ofelectrical property measurements as a testing methodology to evaluate therelative performance of a range of concrete mixes. The technique lends itself toin-situ monitoring thereby allowing measurements to be obtained on theas-placed concrete. Conductivity measurements are presented for concreteswith and without supplementary cementitious materials (SCM’s) fromdemoulding up to 350 days. It is shown that electrical conductivitymeasurements display a continual decrease over the entire test period andattributed to pore structure refinement due to hydration and pozzolanicreaction. The term formation factor is introduced to rank concrete performancein terms of is resistance to chloride penetration.",
keywords = "Concrete, cover-zone, durability, performance testing, monitoring, electrical conductivity, formation factor.",
author = "John McCarter and Malcolm Chrisp and Gerry Starrs and Muhammed Basheer and Sreejith Nanukuttan and Srinivasan Sudarshan and Bryan Magee",
note = "Reference text: A{\"i}t-Mokhtar, A., Poupard, O. and Dumargue, P. (2006) ‘Relationship between the transfer properties of the coating and impedance spectroscopy in reinforced cement-based materials’, J. of Mater. Sci., Vol. 41, No. 18, pp.6006–6014. Amiri, O., A{\"i}t-Mokhtar, A. and Sarhani, M. (2005) ‘Tri-dimensional modelling of cementitious materials permeability from polymodal pore size distribution obtained by mercury intrusion porosimetry tests’, Adv. Cem. Res., Vol. 17, No. 1, pp.39–45. Archie, G.E. (1942) ‘The electrical resistivity log as an aid in determining some reservoir characteristics’, Trans. of the Amer. Inst. of Mining and Metallurgical Engrs., Vol. 146, pp.54–62. Atkinson, A. and Nickerson, A.K. (1984) ‘The diffusion of ions through water-saturated cement’, J. of Matls. Sci., Vol. 19, No. 9, pp.3068–3078. Bamforth, P.B., Price, W.F. and Emerson, M. (1997) An International Review of Chloride Ingress Into Structural Concrete, Transport Research Laboratory, Contractor Report 359, 162pp., (ISSN 0266-7045). Barneyback, R.S. and Diamond, S. (1981) ‘Expression and analysis of pore fluid from hardened cement pastes and mortars’, Cem. Concr. Res., Vol. 11, No. 2, pp.279–285. Bentur, A. and Mitchell, D. (2008) ‘Materials performance lessons’, Cem. Concr. Res., Vol. 38, No. 2, pp.259–272. Bentz, D. (2007) ‘A virtual rapid chloride permeability test’, Cem. Concr. Comp., Vol. 29, No. 10, pp.723–731. British Cement Association (1998) in Hobbs, D.W. (Ed.): Minimum Requirements for Durable Concrete, British Cement Association, 172pp. British Standards Institution EN206-1 (2000a) Concrete: Specification, Performance, Production and Conformity, BSI, London. British Standards Institution, EN197-1 (2000b) Cement-Part 1: Composition, Specifications and Conformity Criteria for Common Cements, BSI, London. British Standards Institution, BS8500-1 (2006a) Concrete-Complementary British Standard to EN 206-1 – Part 1: Method of Specifying and Guidance for the Specifer, BSI, London. British Standards Institution, EN15167-1 (2006b) Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag for Use in Concrete, Mortar and Grout – Part 1: Definitions, Specifications and Conformity Criteria, BSI, London. British Standards Institution, EN450-1 (2005) Fly Ash for Concrete-Part 1: Definition, Specifications and Conformity Criteria, BSI, London. British Standards Institution, EN934-2 (2009) Admixtures for Concrete, Mortar and Grout. Part 2: Concrete Admixtures, BSI, London. Chrisp, T.M., McCarter, W.J., Starrs, G., Basheer, P.A.M. and Blewett, J. (2002) ‘Depth related variation in conductivity to study wetting and drying of cover-zone concrete’, Cem. Concr. Comp., Vol. 24, No. 5, pp.415–427. Christensen, B.J., Coverdale, R.T., Olsen, R.A., Ford, S.J., Garboczi, E.J., Jennings, H.M. and Mason, T.O. (1994) ‘Impedance spectroscopy of hydrating cement-based materials: measurement, interpretation, and applications’, J. Amer. Ceramic Soc., Vol. 77, No. 11, pp.2789–2804. DuraCrete (1999) ‘Compliance testing for probabilistic design purposes’, EU Brite-EuRam III, Project Report BE95-1347/R8, 105pp (ISBN 903760420X). Friedmann, H., Amiri, O. and A{\"i}t-Mokhtar, A. (2008) ‘Physical modeling of the electrical double layer effects on multispecies ions transport in cement-based materials’, Cem. Concr. Res., Vol. 38, No. 12, pp.1394–1400. Hewlett, P.C. (Ed.) (1998) Chapter 4 in ‘Lea’s Chemistry of Cement’, 4th ed., Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford, UK (ISBN 0750662565). Hobbs, D.W. (Ed.) (1998) Minimum Requirements for Durable Concrete: Minimum Requirements for Durable Concrete Carbonation - and Chloride-Induced Corrosion, Freeze-Thaw Attack and Chemical Attack, British Cement Association, 172pp (ISBN 0721015247, 9780721015248). Katz, A.J. and Thompson, A.H. (1986) ‘Quantitative prediction of permeability in porous rock’, Phys. Rev. B: Condensed Matter, Vol. 34, No. 11, pp.8179–8181. Kyi, A.A. and Batchelor, B. (1994) ‘An electrical conductivity method for measuring the effects of additives on effective diffusivities in Portland cement pastes’, Cem. Concr. Res., Vol. 24, No. 4, pp.752–764. Li, S. and Roy, D.M. (1986) ‘Investigation of relations between porosity, pore structure, and Cl − diffusion of fly ash and blended cement pastes’, Cem. Concr. Res., Vol. 16, No. 5, pp.749–759. Li, Y-H. and Gregory, S. (1974) ‘Diffusion of ions in sea water and deep-sea sediments’, Geochimica et Cosmochemica Acta, Vol. 38, No. 5, pp.703–714. Lin, F. and Meyer, C. (2009) ‘Hydration kinetics modeling of Portland cement considering the effects of curing temperature and applied pressure’, Cem. Concr. Res., Vol. 39, No. 4, pp.255–265. Lu, X. (1997) ‘Application of the Nernst-Einstein equation to concrete’, Cem. Concr. Res., Vol. 27, No. 2, pp.293–302. McCarter, W.J. and Brousseau, R. (1990) ‘The A.C. response of hardened cement paste’, Cem. Concr. Res., Vol. 20, No. 6, pp.891–900. McCarter, W.J., Emerson, M. and Ezirim, H. (1995) ‘Properties of concrete in the cover zone: developments in monitoring techniques’, Mag. Concr. Res., Vol. 47, No. 172, pp.243–251. McCarter, W.J., Starrs, G., Adamson, A., Chrisp, T.M., Basheer, P.A.M., Nanukuttan, S., Srinivasan, S. and Green, C. (2013) ‘Influence of Different European Cements (CEM) on the hydration of cover-zone concrete during the curing and post curing periods’, ASCE J. Matls. in Civil Engng., September, Vol. 25, No. 9, pp.1335–1343. McCarter, W.J., Starrs, G., Kandasami, S., Jones, M.R. and Chrisp, M. (2009) ‘Electrode configurations for resistivity measurements on concrete’, ACI Matls. J., Vol. 106, No. 3, pp.258–264. Millington, R.J. and Quirk, J.P. (1964) ‘Formation factors and permeability equations’, Nature, 11 April, Vol. 202, No. 4928, pp.143–145. Reardon, E.J. (1992) ‘Problems and approaches to the prediction of the chemical composition in cement/water systems’, Waste Management, Vol. 12, Nos. 2–3, pp.221–239. Shackelford, C.D. and Daniel, D.E. (1991) ‘Diffusion in saturated soil I: Background’, ASCE J. of Geotechnical Engng., Vol. 117, No. 3, pp.467–484. Snyder, K.A., Feng, X., Keen, B.D. and Mason, T.O. (2003) ‘Estimating the electrical conductivity of cement paste pore solutions from OH-, K+ and Na+ concentrations’, Cem. Concr. Res., Vol. 33, No. 6, pp.793–798. Taylor, H.F.W. (1987) ‘A method for predicting alkali ion concentrations in cement pore solutions’, Adv. Cem. Res., Vol. 1, No. 1, pp.5–16. Tumidajski, P.J. and Schumacher, A.S. (1996) ‘On the relationship between the formation factor and propan-2-ol diffusivity in mortars’, Cem. Concr. Res., Vol. 26, No. 9, pp.1301–1306.",
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volume = "6",
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McCarter, J, Chrisp, M, Starrs, G, Basheer, M, Nanukuttan, S, Sudarshan, S & Magee, B 2015, 'A Durability Performance Index for Concrete: Developments in a Novel Test Method', Int. J. Structural Engineering, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 2-22. https://doi.org/10.1504/IJSTRUCTE.2015.067966

A Durability Performance Index for Concrete: Developments in a Novel Test Method. / McCarter, John; Chrisp, Malcolm; Starrs, Gerry; Basheer, Muhammed; Nanukuttan, Sreejith; Sudarshan, Srinivasan; Magee, Bryan.

In: Int. J. Structural Engineering, Vol. 6, No. 1, 2015, p. 2-22.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - A Durability Performance Index for Concrete: Developments in a Novel Test Method

AU - McCarter, John

AU - Chrisp, Malcolm

AU - Starrs, Gerry

AU - Basheer, Muhammed

AU - Nanukuttan, Sreejith

AU - Sudarshan, Srinivasan

AU - Magee, Bryan

N1 - Reference text: Aït-Mokhtar, A., Poupard, O. and Dumargue, P. (2006) ‘Relationship between the transfer properties of the coating and impedance spectroscopy in reinforced cement-based materials’, J. of Mater. Sci., Vol. 41, No. 18, pp.6006–6014. Amiri, O., Aït-Mokhtar, A. and Sarhani, M. (2005) ‘Tri-dimensional modelling of cementitious materials permeability from polymodal pore size distribution obtained by mercury intrusion porosimetry tests’, Adv. Cem. Res., Vol. 17, No. 1, pp.39–45. Archie, G.E. (1942) ‘The electrical resistivity log as an aid in determining some reservoir characteristics’, Trans. of the Amer. Inst. of Mining and Metallurgical Engrs., Vol. 146, pp.54–62. Atkinson, A. and Nickerson, A.K. (1984) ‘The diffusion of ions through water-saturated cement’, J. of Matls. Sci., Vol. 19, No. 9, pp.3068–3078. Bamforth, P.B., Price, W.F. and Emerson, M. (1997) An International Review of Chloride Ingress Into Structural Concrete, Transport Research Laboratory, Contractor Report 359, 162pp., (ISSN 0266-7045). Barneyback, R.S. and Diamond, S. (1981) ‘Expression and analysis of pore fluid from hardened cement pastes and mortars’, Cem. Concr. Res., Vol. 11, No. 2, pp.279–285. Bentur, A. and Mitchell, D. (2008) ‘Materials performance lessons’, Cem. Concr. Res., Vol. 38, No. 2, pp.259–272. Bentz, D. (2007) ‘A virtual rapid chloride permeability test’, Cem. Concr. Comp., Vol. 29, No. 10, pp.723–731. British Cement Association (1998) in Hobbs, D.W. (Ed.): Minimum Requirements for Durable Concrete, British Cement Association, 172pp. British Standards Institution EN206-1 (2000a) Concrete: Specification, Performance, Production and Conformity, BSI, London. British Standards Institution, EN197-1 (2000b) Cement-Part 1: Composition, Specifications and Conformity Criteria for Common Cements, BSI, London. British Standards Institution, BS8500-1 (2006a) Concrete-Complementary British Standard to EN 206-1 – Part 1: Method of Specifying and Guidance for the Specifer, BSI, London. British Standards Institution, EN15167-1 (2006b) Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag for Use in Concrete, Mortar and Grout – Part 1: Definitions, Specifications and Conformity Criteria, BSI, London. British Standards Institution, EN450-1 (2005) Fly Ash for Concrete-Part 1: Definition, Specifications and Conformity Criteria, BSI, London. British Standards Institution, EN934-2 (2009) Admixtures for Concrete, Mortar and Grout. Part 2: Concrete Admixtures, BSI, London. Chrisp, T.M., McCarter, W.J., Starrs, G., Basheer, P.A.M. and Blewett, J. (2002) ‘Depth related variation in conductivity to study wetting and drying of cover-zone concrete’, Cem. Concr. Comp., Vol. 24, No. 5, pp.415–427. Christensen, B.J., Coverdale, R.T., Olsen, R.A., Ford, S.J., Garboczi, E.J., Jennings, H.M. and Mason, T.O. (1994) ‘Impedance spectroscopy of hydrating cement-based materials: measurement, interpretation, and applications’, J. Amer. Ceramic Soc., Vol. 77, No. 11, pp.2789–2804. DuraCrete (1999) ‘Compliance testing for probabilistic design purposes’, EU Brite-EuRam III, Project Report BE95-1347/R8, 105pp (ISBN 903760420X). Friedmann, H., Amiri, O. and Aït-Mokhtar, A. (2008) ‘Physical modeling of the electrical double layer effects on multispecies ions transport in cement-based materials’, Cem. Concr. Res., Vol. 38, No. 12, pp.1394–1400. Hewlett, P.C. (Ed.) (1998) Chapter 4 in ‘Lea’s Chemistry of Cement’, 4th ed., Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford, UK (ISBN 0750662565). Hobbs, D.W. (Ed.) (1998) Minimum Requirements for Durable Concrete: Minimum Requirements for Durable Concrete Carbonation - and Chloride-Induced Corrosion, Freeze-Thaw Attack and Chemical Attack, British Cement Association, 172pp (ISBN 0721015247, 9780721015248). Katz, A.J. and Thompson, A.H. (1986) ‘Quantitative prediction of permeability in porous rock’, Phys. Rev. B: Condensed Matter, Vol. 34, No. 11, pp.8179–8181. Kyi, A.A. and Batchelor, B. (1994) ‘An electrical conductivity method for measuring the effects of additives on effective diffusivities in Portland cement pastes’, Cem. Concr. Res., Vol. 24, No. 4, pp.752–764. Li, S. and Roy, D.M. (1986) ‘Investigation of relations between porosity, pore structure, and Cl − diffusion of fly ash and blended cement pastes’, Cem. Concr. Res., Vol. 16, No. 5, pp.749–759. Li, Y-H. and Gregory, S. (1974) ‘Diffusion of ions in sea water and deep-sea sediments’, Geochimica et Cosmochemica Acta, Vol. 38, No. 5, pp.703–714. Lin, F. and Meyer, C. (2009) ‘Hydration kinetics modeling of Portland cement considering the effects of curing temperature and applied pressure’, Cem. Concr. Res., Vol. 39, No. 4, pp.255–265. Lu, X. (1997) ‘Application of the Nernst-Einstein equation to concrete’, Cem. Concr. Res., Vol. 27, No. 2, pp.293–302. McCarter, W.J. and Brousseau, R. (1990) ‘The A.C. response of hardened cement paste’, Cem. Concr. Res., Vol. 20, No. 6, pp.891–900. McCarter, W.J., Emerson, M. and Ezirim, H. (1995) ‘Properties of concrete in the cover zone: developments in monitoring techniques’, Mag. Concr. Res., Vol. 47, No. 172, pp.243–251. McCarter, W.J., Starrs, G., Adamson, A., Chrisp, T.M., Basheer, P.A.M., Nanukuttan, S., Srinivasan, S. and Green, C. (2013) ‘Influence of Different European Cements (CEM) on the hydration of cover-zone concrete during the curing and post curing periods’, ASCE J. Matls. in Civil Engng., September, Vol. 25, No. 9, pp.1335–1343. McCarter, W.J., Starrs, G., Kandasami, S., Jones, M.R. and Chrisp, M. (2009) ‘Electrode configurations for resistivity measurements on concrete’, ACI Matls. J., Vol. 106, No. 3, pp.258–264. Millington, R.J. and Quirk, J.P. (1964) ‘Formation factors and permeability equations’, Nature, 11 April, Vol. 202, No. 4928, pp.143–145. Reardon, E.J. (1992) ‘Problems and approaches to the prediction of the chemical composition in cement/water systems’, Waste Management, Vol. 12, Nos. 2–3, pp.221–239. Shackelford, C.D. and Daniel, D.E. (1991) ‘Diffusion in saturated soil I: Background’, ASCE J. of Geotechnical Engng., Vol. 117, No. 3, pp.467–484. Snyder, K.A., Feng, X., Keen, B.D. and Mason, T.O. (2003) ‘Estimating the electrical conductivity of cement paste pore solutions from OH-, K+ and Na+ concentrations’, Cem. Concr. Res., Vol. 33, No. 6, pp.793–798. Taylor, H.F.W. (1987) ‘A method for predicting alkali ion concentrations in cement pore solutions’, Adv. Cem. Res., Vol. 1, No. 1, pp.5–16. Tumidajski, P.J. and Schumacher, A.S. (1996) ‘On the relationship between the formation factor and propan-2-ol diffusivity in mortars’, Cem. Concr. Res., Vol. 26, No. 9, pp.1301–1306.

PY - 2015

Y1 - 2015

N2 - Implementation of both design for durability and performance-basedstandards and specifications are limited by the lack of rapid, simple, sciencebasedtest methods for characterising the transport properties and deteriorationresistance of concrete. This paper presents developments in the application ofelectrical property measurements as a testing methodology to evaluate therelative performance of a range of concrete mixes. The technique lends itself toin-situ monitoring thereby allowing measurements to be obtained on theas-placed concrete. Conductivity measurements are presented for concreteswith and without supplementary cementitious materials (SCM’s) fromdemoulding up to 350 days. It is shown that electrical conductivitymeasurements display a continual decrease over the entire test period andattributed to pore structure refinement due to hydration and pozzolanicreaction. The term formation factor is introduced to rank concrete performancein terms of is resistance to chloride penetration.

AB - Implementation of both design for durability and performance-basedstandards and specifications are limited by the lack of rapid, simple, sciencebasedtest methods for characterising the transport properties and deteriorationresistance of concrete. This paper presents developments in the application ofelectrical property measurements as a testing methodology to evaluate therelative performance of a range of concrete mixes. The technique lends itself toin-situ monitoring thereby allowing measurements to be obtained on theas-placed concrete. Conductivity measurements are presented for concreteswith and without supplementary cementitious materials (SCM’s) fromdemoulding up to 350 days. It is shown that electrical conductivitymeasurements display a continual decrease over the entire test period andattributed to pore structure refinement due to hydration and pozzolanicreaction. The term formation factor is introduced to rank concrete performancein terms of is resistance to chloride penetration.

KW - Concrete

KW - cover-zone

KW - durability

KW - performance testing

KW - monitoring

KW - electrical conductivity

KW - formation factor.

U2 - 10.1504/IJSTRUCTE.2015.067966

DO - 10.1504/IJSTRUCTE.2015.067966

M3 - Article

VL - 6

SP - 2

EP - 22

JO - International Journal of Structural Engineering

T2 - International Journal of Structural Engineering

JF - International Journal of Structural Engineering

SN - 1758-7328

IS - 1

ER -