- Therapeutic Drug monitoring (TDM)
- physicochemical properties
- pharmacokinetic parameters
- systematic review
TY - JOUR
T1 - A descriptive systematic review of salivary TDM in neonates and infants.
AU - Hutchinson, Laura
AU - Sinclair, M
AU - Reid, Bernie
AU - Burnett, Kathryn
AU - Callan, Bridgeen
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PY - 2018/2/14
Y1 - 2018/2/14
N2 - Saliva, as a matrix, offers many benefits over blood in therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM), in particular for infantile TDM. However, the accuracy of salivary TDM in infants remains an area of debate. This review explored the accuracy, applicability and advantages of using saliva TDM in infants and neonates. MethodsDatabases were searched up to and including September 2016. Studies were included based on PICO as follows: P: Infants and neonates being treated with any medication, I: Salivary Therapeutic Drug Monitoring vs C: Traditional methods and O: accuracy, advantages/disadvantages and applicability to practice. Compounds were assessed by their physicochemical and pharmacokinetic properties, as well as published quantitative saliva monitoring data. ResultsTwenty-four studies and their respective 13 compounds were investigated. Four neutral and two acidic compounds, oxcarbazepine, primidone, fluconazole, busulfan, theophylline and phenytoin displayed excellent /very good correlation between blood plasma and saliva. Lamotrigine was the only basic compound to show excellent correlation with morphine exhibiting no correlation between saliva and blood plasma. Furthermore, any compound with a pKa within physiological range (pH 6 – 8) gave a more varied response. ConclusionThere is significant potential for infantile saliva testing and in particular, for neutral and weakly acidic compounds. Of the properties investigated, pKa was the most influential with both logP and protein binding having little effect on this correlation. To conclude any compound with a pKa within physiological range (pH 6 – 8) should be considered with extra care, with the extraction and analysis method examined and optimized on a case-by-case basis.
AB - Saliva, as a matrix, offers many benefits over blood in therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM), in particular for infantile TDM. However, the accuracy of salivary TDM in infants remains an area of debate. This review explored the accuracy, applicability and advantages of using saliva TDM in infants and neonates. MethodsDatabases were searched up to and including September 2016. Studies were included based on PICO as follows: P: Infants and neonates being treated with any medication, I: Salivary Therapeutic Drug Monitoring vs C: Traditional methods and O: accuracy, advantages/disadvantages and applicability to practice. Compounds were assessed by their physicochemical and pharmacokinetic properties, as well as published quantitative saliva monitoring data. ResultsTwenty-four studies and their respective 13 compounds were investigated. Four neutral and two acidic compounds, oxcarbazepine, primidone, fluconazole, busulfan, theophylline and phenytoin displayed excellent /very good correlation between blood plasma and saliva. Lamotrigine was the only basic compound to show excellent correlation with morphine exhibiting no correlation between saliva and blood plasma. Furthermore, any compound with a pKa within physiological range (pH 6 – 8) gave a more varied response. ConclusionThere is significant potential for infantile saliva testing and in particular, for neutral and weakly acidic compounds. Of the properties investigated, pKa was the most influential with both logP and protein binding having little effect on this correlation. To conclude any compound with a pKa within physiological range (pH 6 – 8) should be considered with extra care, with the extraction and analysis method examined and optimized on a case-by-case basis.
KW - Therapeutic Drug monitoring (TDM)
KW - saliva
KW - physicochemical properties
KW - pharmacokinetic parameters
KW - infants
KW - paediatric
KW - systematic review
U2 - 10.1111/bcp.13553
DO - 10.1111/bcp.13553
M3 - Article
VL - 1
SP - 1
EP - 11
JO - British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
T2 - British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
JF - British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
SN - 0306-5251