A cross-national study on the impact of management teams on the rapid internationalization of small firms

S LOANE, J BELL, R MCNAUGHTON

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

78 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

While the importance of top management teams in the formation and development of new ventures is well recognised, their impact on the rapid internationalization of such firms remains relatively under-researched. This article presents the findings of a cross-national study conducted in Australia, Canada, Ireland and New Zealand that demonstrate the significant impact that such teams have in creating the core internal capabilities and leveraging the external resources required for rapid and dedicated internationalization. The need to augment the management team in order to address key resource or knowledge gaps and/or to expand international networks is also evident among many firms, as is the impact of changes in team structures on business strategy and internationalization. Directions for future research and implications for public policy in support of rapidly internationalizing small firms are presented and discussed.
LanguageEnglish
Pages489-504
JournalJournal of World Business
Volume42
Issue number4
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2007

Fingerprint

Internationalization
Cross-national study
Small firms
Team management
Resources
New Zealand
Public policy
Top management teams
Business strategy
Knowledge gap
International networks
New ventures
Canada
Ireland

Keywords

  • Small firm
  • Rapid internationalization
  • Management teams

Cite this

@article{29b82bf4d4b4406ca8f5a51265c8e99c,
title = "A cross-national study on the impact of management teams on the rapid internationalization of small firms",
abstract = "While the importance of top management teams in the formation and development of new ventures is well recognised, their impact on the rapid internationalization of such firms remains relatively under-researched. This article presents the findings of a cross-national study conducted in Australia, Canada, Ireland and New Zealand that demonstrate the significant impact that such teams have in creating the core internal capabilities and leveraging the external resources required for rapid and dedicated internationalization. The need to augment the management team in order to address key resource or knowledge gaps and/or to expand international networks is also evident among many firms, as is the impact of changes in team structures on business strategy and internationalization. Directions for future research and implications for public policy in support of rapidly internationalizing small firms are presented and discussed.",
keywords = "Small firm, Rapid internationalization, Management teams",
author = "S LOANE and J BELL and R MCNAUGHTON",
note = "Reference text: Aaby, N. E., & Slater, S. F. (1989). Management influences on export performance: A review of the empirical literature 1978–88. International Marketing Review, 6(4): 7–26. Adler, P. S.,& Kwon, S.-W. (2002). Social capital: Prospects for a new concept. Academy of Management Journal, 27(1): 17–40. Amason, A. C., Shrader, R. C., & Tompson, G. H. (2006). Newness and novelty: Relating top management team composition to new venture performance. Journal of Business Venturing, 21(1): 125– 148. Ardichvili, A., Cardozo, R., & Ray, S. (2003). A theory of entrepreneurial opportunity identification and development. Journal of Business Venturing, 18(1): 105–123. Arenius, P., & Autio, E. (2005). Social capital and new firm internationalization. Paper presented at academy of international business. Bachher, J., & Guild, P. (1996). Financing early stage technology based companies: Investment criteria used by investors. Frontiers of entrepreneurship. Accessed at: www.babson.edu/entrep/fer/ papers96/bachher/ (June 24, 2001). Barkema, H. G., & Vermeulen, G. A. M. (1998). International expansion through start-up or through acquisition; an organizational learning perspective. Academy of Management Journal, 41(1): 7–27. Barlett, C., & Ghosal, S. (1989). Managing across borders: The transnational solution. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press. Barney, J. B. (2002). Gaining and sustaining competitive advantage (2nd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall. Bell, J., McNaughton, R., & Young, S. (2001). ‘‘Born-again global’’ firms—An extension to the ‘‘born global’’ phenomenon. Journal of International Management, 7: 173–189. Bell, J., McNaughton, R., Young, S., & Crick, D. (2003). Towards an integrative model of small firm internationalization. Journal of International Entrepreneurship, 1: 339–362. Birley, S., & Stockley, S. (2000). Entrepreneurial teams and venture growth. In D. L. Sexton & H. Landsto¨m (Eds.), The Blackwell handbook of entrepreneurship (pp. 287–307). Oxford, UK: Blackwell. Bloodgood, J. M., Sapienza, H., & Almeida, J. G. (1995). The Internationalization of new high potential ventures: Antecedents and outcomes. Frontiers of entrepreneurship research, Wellsley, MA: Babson College for Entrepreneurial Studies. pp. 533– 546. Bonaccorsi, A. (1992). On the relationship between firm size and export intensity. Journal of International Business Studies, 23(4): 605–635. Buckley, P. J. (1993). The role of management in internalisation theory. Management International Review, 33(3): 197–207. Carpenter, M. A., & Fredrickson, J. W. (2001). Top management teams, global strategic posture, and the moderating role of uncertainty. Academy of Management Journal, 44: 533–547. Cavusgil, S. T. (1984). Differences among export firms based on their degree of internationalization. Journal of Business Research, 12: 195–208. Cavusgil, T., & Das, A. (1997). Methodological issues in empirical cross-cultural research: A survey of the management literature and a framework. Management International Review, 71–97. Chetty, S., & Campbell-Hunt, C. (2004). A strategic approach to internationalization:A traditional versus a ‘born-global’ approach. Journal of International Marketing, 12(1): 57–81. Chetty, S., & Hamilton, R. T. (1993). Firm-level determinants of export performance: A meta-analysis. International Marketing Review, 10: 26–34. Child, J. (1972). Organizational structure, environment and performance: The role of strategic choice. Sociology, 1: 2–22. Chowdhury, S. (2005). Demographic diversity for building an effective entrepreneurial team: Is it important? Journal of Business Venturing, 20(6): 727–746. Cooper, A., & Dailey, C. (1997). Entrepreneurial teams. In D. L. Sexton & R. W. Smilor (Eds.), Entrepreneurship 2000 (pp. 127– 150). Chicago: Upstart. Coviello, N. E., & Jones, M. V. (2004). Methodological issues in international entrepreneurship research. Journal of Business Venturing, 19(4): 485–508. Coviello, N. E., & McAuley, A. (1999). Internationalization and the smaller firm: A review of contemporary empirical research. Management International Review, 39(3): 223–256. Coviello, N. E., & Munro, H. (1997). Network relationships and the internationalization process of small software firms. International Business Review, 6(4): 361–386. Cresswell, J.W. (1994). Research design: Qualitative and quantitative approaches. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Cresswell, J. W. (1998). Qualitative enquiry and research design: Choosing among five traditions. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Cringley, R. X. (1992). Accidental Empires: How the boys of Silicon Valley make their millions, battle foreign competition and still can’t get a date. London: Viking. Cyert, R. M., & March, J. G. (1963). A behavioural theory of the firm. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall. De Meur, G., & Rihoux, B. (2002). L’Analyse Quali-Quantitative Compare´e (AQQC-QCA). Approche, techniques et applications en sciences humaines (35 pp). Academia-Bruylant, Louvain-laneuve. Eisenhardt, K. M., & Schoonhoven, C. B. (1990). Organizational growth: Linking founding team, strategy, environment, and growth among U.S. semiconductor ventures, 1978–1988. Administrative Science Quarterly, 35: 504–529. Fahy, J. (2002). A resource-based analysis of sustainable competitive advantage in a global environment. International Business Review, 11: 57–78. Fillis, I. (2001). Small firm internationalisation: An investigative survey and future research directions. Management Decisions, 39(9): 767–783. Florin, J., Lubatkin, M., & Schulze,W. (2003). A social capital model of high-growth ventures. Academy of Management Journal, 46(3): 374–384. Hall, J., & Hofer, C. W. (1993). Venture capitalists’ decision criteria and new venture evaluation. Journal of Business Venturing, 8(1): 25–42. Hambrick, D. C. (1994). Top management groups: A conceptual integration and reconsideration of the ‘team’ label. In L. L. Cummings & B. M. Staw (Eds.), Research in organizational behavior (pp. 171–214). Greenwich, CT: JAI Press. Hambrick, D. C., & Mason, P. A. (1984). Upper echelons: The organisation as a reflection of its top managers. Academy of Management Review, 9(2): 193–206. Harveston, P. D., Kedia, B. L., & Davis, P. S. (2000). Internationalization of born global and gradual globalizing firms: The impact of the manager. Advances in Competitiveness Research, 8(1): 92–99. Harveston, P. D., Osborne, D., & Kedia, B. (2002). Examining the mental models of entrepreneurs from born global and gradual globalizing firms. Paper presented at the high technology small firms conference. Hewson, C., Yule, P., Laurent, D., & Vogel, K. (2002). Internet research methods: A practical guide for the social and behavioural sciences. London: Sage. Huber, G. P., & Glick, W. H. (1993). Organizational change and redesign: Ideas and insights for improving performance. New York: Oxford University Press. Hurmerinta-Peltoma¨ki, L., & Nummela, N. (2006). Mixed methods in international business research: A value-added perspective. Management International Review, 46: 4. Hutchinson, K., Quinn, B., & Alexander, N. (2006). The role of management characteristics in the internationalization of SMEs: Evidence from the UK retail sector. Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, 13(4): 513–534. Inkpen, A. C., & Tsang, E.W. K. (2005). Social capital, networks, and knowledge transfer. Academy of Management Review, 30(1): 146– 165. Jolly, V. K., Alahuthta, M., & Jeannet, J. P. (1992). Challenging the incumbents: How high technology start-ups compete globally. Journal of Strategic Change, 1: 71–82. Jones, M. V. (1999). The internationalization of small high-technology firms. Journal of International Marketing, 7(4): 15–41. Kamm, J., Seeger, J., Shuman, N., & Nurick, A. (1990). Entrepreneurial teams in new venture creation: A research agenda. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 14(4): 7–17. Knight, G. (2000). Entrepreneurship and marketing strategy: The SME under globalization. Journal of International Marketing, 8(2): 12–32. Knight, G., & Cavusgil, S. T. (1996). The born global firm: A challenge to traditional internationalization theory. Advances in international marketing (8). Greenwich, CT: JAI Press. pp. 11–26. Knight, G., & Cavusgil, S. T. (2004). Innovation, organizational capabilities, and the born-global firm. Journal of International Business Studies, 35: 124–141. Knight, G. A., & Liesch, P. W. (2002). Information internalisation in internationalising the firm. Journal of Business Research, 55(12): 981–995. Kuivalainen, O., Sundqvist, S., Puumalainen, K., & Cadogan, J. W. (2004). The effect of environmental turbulence and leader characteristics on international performance: Are knowledge-based firms different? Canadian Journal of Administrative Sciences, 21(1): 35–50. Lee, C., Lee, K., & Pennings, J. M. (2001). Internal capabilities, external networks, and performance: A study on technology-based ventures. Strategic Management Journal, 22: 615–640. Leonidou, L. C. (2004). An analysis of the barriers hindering small business export development. Journal of Small Business Management, 42(3): 279–302. Leonidou, L. C., & Katsikeas, C. S. (1996). The export development process: An integrative review of empirical models. Journal of International Business Studies, 27(3): 517–551. Leonidou, L. C., Katsikeas, C. S., & Piercy, N. F. (1998). Identifying managerial influences on exporting: Past research and future directions. Journal of International Marketing, 6(2): 74–102. Liesch, P.W.,Welch, L. S.,Welch, D., McGaughey, S. L., Petersen, B., & Lamb, P. (2002). Evolving strands of research on firm internationalization— An Australian-Nordic perspective. International Studies of Management and Organization, 32(1): 16–35. Loane, S., McNaughton, R., & Bell, J. (2004). The Internationalization trajectories of entrepreneurial internet start-ups: Evidence S. Loane et al. / Journal of World Business 42 (2007) 489–504 503 from Europe and North America. Canadian Journal of Administrative Science, 21(1): 1–18. Lohrke, F. T., & Bruton, G. D. (1997). Contributions and gaps in international strategic management literature. Journal of International Management, 3: 25–57. Madsen, T. K., & Servais, P. (1997). The internationalization of born globals: An evolutionary process? International Business Review, 6: 561–583. Marschan-Piekkari, R., & Welch, C. (2004). Handbook of qualitative research methods for international business. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing. Marschan-Piekkari, R.,&Welch, C. (2006).Guest Editors’ introduction to the focused issue: Qualitative research methods in international business. Management International Review, 46(4): 391–396. McDougall, P. P., Shane, S., & Oviatt, B. M. (1994). Explaining the formation of international new ventures: The limits of theories from international business research. Journal of Business Venturing, 9: 469–487. McDougall, P. P., & Oviatt, B. M. (2000). International entrepreneurship; the intersection of two research paths. Academy of Management Journal, 43(5): 902–906. McDougall, P. P., Oviatt, B. M., & Shrader, R. C. (2003). A comparison of international and domestic new ventures. Journal of International Entrepreneurship, 1(1): 59–82. McKinsey & Co. (1993). Emerging exporters: Australia’s high valueadded manufacturing exporters. Melbourne: Australian Manufacturing Council. McGuinness, K., & Short, T. (1998). Research on the Net. London: Old Bailey Press. Miesenbock, K. J. (1988). Small business and exporting: A literature review. International Small Business Journal, 6(2): 42–61. Miles, R. E.,& Snow, C. C. (1978). Organizational strategy, structure, and process. McGraw-Hill: New York. Nahapiet, J., & Ghoshal, S. (1998). Social capital, intellectual capital, and the organizational advantage. Academy of Management Review, 23(2): 242–266. Oviatt, B. M., & McDougall, P. P. (2005). Defining international entrepreneurship and modeling the speed of internationalization. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 29(5): 537–554. Oviatt, B., & McDougall, P. (1994). Toward a theory of international new ventures. Journal of International Business Studies, 25(1): 45–64. Petersen, B., Pedersen, T., & Sharma, D. D. (2003). The role of knowledge in firms’ internationalization process: Wherefrom and whereto? In A. Blomstermo & D. D. Sharma (Eds.), Learning in the internationalization process of firms (pp. 36–55). Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar. Petersen, B., Welch, L. S., & Liesch, P. W. (2002). The Internet and foreign market expansion by firms. Management International Review, 42(2): 207–221. Ragin, C. (1987). The comparative method: Moving beyond the qualitative and quantitative strategies. University of California Press. Ragin, C., & Zaret, D. (1983). Theory and method in comparative research: Two strategies. Social Forces, 61: 731–754. Reid, S. D. (1983). Managerial and firm influences on export behavior. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 11(3): 323–332. Reuber, A. R., & Fischer, E. (1997). The influence of the management team’s international experience on the internationalization behaviours of SMEs. Journal of International Business Studies, 28(4): 807–825. Reuber, A. R., & Fischer, E. (2002). Foreign sales and small firm growth: The moderating role of the management team. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 27: 29–46. Rihoux, B., De Meur, G., Yamasaki, S., & Ronsse, S. (2003). An inventory of good QCA practice. http://smalln.spri.ucl.ac.be/ Didactics1GB.htm#1bis (accessed 12/9/2004). Ronen, S., & Shenkar, O. (1985). Clustering countries on attitudinal dimensions: A review and synthesis. Academy of Management Review, 10: 435–454. Sanders,W. G., & Carpenter, M. (1998). Internationalization and firm governance: The roles of CEO compensation, top team composition, and board structure. Academy of Management Journal, 41: 158–178. Saunders, M. N. K., Lewis, P., & Thornhill, A. (2003). Research methods for business students (3rd ed.). Harlow: Financial Times Prentice Hall. Shane, S., & Venkataraman, S. (2000). The promise of entrepreneurship as a field of research. Academy of Management Review, 25: 217–226. Shrader, R. C., Oviatt, B. M., & McDougall, P. P. (2000). How new ventures exploit trade-offs among international risk factors: Lessons for the accelerated internationalization of the 21st century. Academy of Management Journal, 43: 1227–1247. Sinkovics, R. R., Penz, E., & Ghauri, P. N. (2005). Analysing textual data in international marketing research. Qualitative Marketing Research: An International Journal, 8(1): 9–32. Vyakarnam, S., & Handelberg, J. J. A (2005). Four themes of the impact of management teams on organizational performance: Implications for future research of entrepreneurial teams. International Small Business Journal, 23(3): 236–256. Watson, W. E., Ponthieu, L., & Critelli, J. W. (1995). Team interpersonal process effectiveness in venture partnerships and its connection to perceived success. Journal of Business Venturing, 10: 393–411. Weerawardena, J., Mort, G. S., Liesch, P. W., & Knight, G. (2007). Conceptualizing accelerated internationalization in the born global firm: A dynamic capabilities perspective. Journal of World Business, 42(3). Welch, D. E., &Welch, L. S. (1996). The internationalization process and networks: A strategic management perspective. Journal of International Marketing, 4(3): 11–28. Yli-Renko, H., Autio, E., & Sapienza, H. (2001). Social capital, knowledge acquisition, and knowledge exploitation in young technology-based firms. Strategic Management Journal, 22(6– 7): 587–613. Zahra, S. A., & George, G. (2002). International entrepreneurship: Research contributions and future directions. In M. A. Hitt, R. D. Ireland, S. M. Camp, & D. L. Sexton (Eds.), Strategic entrepreneurship: Creating a new mindset (pp. 255–288). Oxford: Blackwell Publishers. Zou, S., & Stan, S. (1998). The determinants of export performance; a review of the empirical literature between 1987 and 1997. International Marketing Review, 15(5): 333–353.",
year = "2007",
month = "12",
doi = "10.1016/j.jwb.2007.06.009",
language = "English",
volume = "42",
pages = "489--504",
journal = "Journal of World Business",
issn = "1090-9516",
publisher = "Elsevier",
number = "4",

}

A cross-national study on the impact of management teams on the rapid internationalization of small firms. / LOANE, S; BELL, J; MCNAUGHTON, R.

In: Journal of World Business, Vol. 42, No. 4, 12.2007, p. 489-504.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - A cross-national study on the impact of management teams on the rapid internationalization of small firms

AU - LOANE, S

AU - BELL, J

AU - MCNAUGHTON, R

N1 - Reference text: Aaby, N. E., & Slater, S. F. (1989). Management influences on export performance: A review of the empirical literature 1978–88. International Marketing Review, 6(4): 7–26. Adler, P. S.,& Kwon, S.-W. (2002). Social capital: Prospects for a new concept. Academy of Management Journal, 27(1): 17–40. Amason, A. C., Shrader, R. C., & Tompson, G. H. (2006). Newness and novelty: Relating top management team composition to new venture performance. Journal of Business Venturing, 21(1): 125– 148. Ardichvili, A., Cardozo, R., & Ray, S. (2003). A theory of entrepreneurial opportunity identification and development. Journal of Business Venturing, 18(1): 105–123. Arenius, P., & Autio, E. (2005). Social capital and new firm internationalization. Paper presented at academy of international business. Bachher, J., & Guild, P. (1996). Financing early stage technology based companies: Investment criteria used by investors. Frontiers of entrepreneurship. Accessed at: www.babson.edu/entrep/fer/ papers96/bachher/ (June 24, 2001). Barkema, H. G., & Vermeulen, G. A. M. (1998). International expansion through start-up or through acquisition; an organizational learning perspective. Academy of Management Journal, 41(1): 7–27. Barlett, C., & Ghosal, S. (1989). Managing across borders: The transnational solution. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press. Barney, J. B. (2002). Gaining and sustaining competitive advantage (2nd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall. Bell, J., McNaughton, R., & Young, S. (2001). ‘‘Born-again global’’ firms—An extension to the ‘‘born global’’ phenomenon. Journal of International Management, 7: 173–189. Bell, J., McNaughton, R., Young, S., & Crick, D. (2003). Towards an integrative model of small firm internationalization. Journal of International Entrepreneurship, 1: 339–362. Birley, S., & Stockley, S. (2000). Entrepreneurial teams and venture growth. In D. L. Sexton & H. Landsto¨m (Eds.), The Blackwell handbook of entrepreneurship (pp. 287–307). Oxford, UK: Blackwell. Bloodgood, J. M., Sapienza, H., & Almeida, J. G. (1995). The Internationalization of new high potential ventures: Antecedents and outcomes. Frontiers of entrepreneurship research, Wellsley, MA: Babson College for Entrepreneurial Studies. pp. 533– 546. Bonaccorsi, A. (1992). On the relationship between firm size and export intensity. Journal of International Business Studies, 23(4): 605–635. Buckley, P. J. (1993). The role of management in internalisation theory. Management International Review, 33(3): 197–207. Carpenter, M. A., & Fredrickson, J. W. (2001). Top management teams, global strategic posture, and the moderating role of uncertainty. Academy of Management Journal, 44: 533–547. Cavusgil, S. T. (1984). Differences among export firms based on their degree of internationalization. Journal of Business Research, 12: 195–208. Cavusgil, T., & Das, A. (1997). Methodological issues in empirical cross-cultural research: A survey of the management literature and a framework. Management International Review, 71–97. Chetty, S., & Campbell-Hunt, C. (2004). A strategic approach to internationalization:A traditional versus a ‘born-global’ approach. Journal of International Marketing, 12(1): 57–81. Chetty, S., & Hamilton, R. T. (1993). Firm-level determinants of export performance: A meta-analysis. International Marketing Review, 10: 26–34. Child, J. (1972). Organizational structure, environment and performance: The role of strategic choice. Sociology, 1: 2–22. Chowdhury, S. (2005). Demographic diversity for building an effective entrepreneurial team: Is it important? Journal of Business Venturing, 20(6): 727–746. Cooper, A., & Dailey, C. (1997). Entrepreneurial teams. In D. L. Sexton & R. W. Smilor (Eds.), Entrepreneurship 2000 (pp. 127– 150). Chicago: Upstart. Coviello, N. E., & Jones, M. V. (2004). Methodological issues in international entrepreneurship research. Journal of Business Venturing, 19(4): 485–508. Coviello, N. E., & McAuley, A. (1999). Internationalization and the smaller firm: A review of contemporary empirical research. Management International Review, 39(3): 223–256. Coviello, N. E., & Munro, H. (1997). Network relationships and the internationalization process of small software firms. International Business Review, 6(4): 361–386. Cresswell, J.W. (1994). Research design: Qualitative and quantitative approaches. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Cresswell, J. W. (1998). Qualitative enquiry and research design: Choosing among five traditions. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Cringley, R. X. (1992). Accidental Empires: How the boys of Silicon Valley make their millions, battle foreign competition and still can’t get a date. London: Viking. Cyert, R. M., & March, J. G. (1963). A behavioural theory of the firm. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall. De Meur, G., & Rihoux, B. (2002). L’Analyse Quali-Quantitative Compare´e (AQQC-QCA). Approche, techniques et applications en sciences humaines (35 pp). Academia-Bruylant, Louvain-laneuve. Eisenhardt, K. M., & Schoonhoven, C. B. (1990). Organizational growth: Linking founding team, strategy, environment, and growth among U.S. semiconductor ventures, 1978–1988. Administrative Science Quarterly, 35: 504–529. Fahy, J. (2002). A resource-based analysis of sustainable competitive advantage in a global environment. International Business Review, 11: 57–78. Fillis, I. (2001). Small firm internationalisation: An investigative survey and future research directions. Management Decisions, 39(9): 767–783. Florin, J., Lubatkin, M., & Schulze,W. (2003). A social capital model of high-growth ventures. Academy of Management Journal, 46(3): 374–384. Hall, J., & Hofer, C. W. (1993). Venture capitalists’ decision criteria and new venture evaluation. Journal of Business Venturing, 8(1): 25–42. Hambrick, D. C. (1994). Top management groups: A conceptual integration and reconsideration of the ‘team’ label. In L. L. Cummings & B. M. Staw (Eds.), Research in organizational behavior (pp. 171–214). Greenwich, CT: JAI Press. Hambrick, D. C., & Mason, P. A. (1984). Upper echelons: The organisation as a reflection of its top managers. Academy of Management Review, 9(2): 193–206. Harveston, P. D., Kedia, B. L., & Davis, P. S. (2000). Internationalization of born global and gradual globalizing firms: The impact of the manager. Advances in Competitiveness Research, 8(1): 92–99. Harveston, P. D., Osborne, D., & Kedia, B. (2002). Examining the mental models of entrepreneurs from born global and gradual globalizing firms. Paper presented at the high technology small firms conference. Hewson, C., Yule, P., Laurent, D., & Vogel, K. (2002). Internet research methods: A practical guide for the social and behavioural sciences. London: Sage. Huber, G. P., & Glick, W. H. (1993). Organizational change and redesign: Ideas and insights for improving performance. New York: Oxford University Press. Hurmerinta-Peltoma¨ki, L., & Nummela, N. (2006). Mixed methods in international business research: A value-added perspective. Management International Review, 46: 4. Hutchinson, K., Quinn, B., & Alexander, N. (2006). The role of management characteristics in the internationalization of SMEs: Evidence from the UK retail sector. Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, 13(4): 513–534. Inkpen, A. C., & Tsang, E.W. K. (2005). Social capital, networks, and knowledge transfer. Academy of Management Review, 30(1): 146– 165. Jolly, V. K., Alahuthta, M., & Jeannet, J. P. (1992). Challenging the incumbents: How high technology start-ups compete globally. Journal of Strategic Change, 1: 71–82. Jones, M. V. (1999). The internationalization of small high-technology firms. Journal of International Marketing, 7(4): 15–41. Kamm, J., Seeger, J., Shuman, N., & Nurick, A. (1990). Entrepreneurial teams in new venture creation: A research agenda. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 14(4): 7–17. Knight, G. (2000). Entrepreneurship and marketing strategy: The SME under globalization. Journal of International Marketing, 8(2): 12–32. Knight, G., & Cavusgil, S. T. (1996). The born global firm: A challenge to traditional internationalization theory. Advances in international marketing (8). Greenwich, CT: JAI Press. pp. 11–26. Knight, G., & Cavusgil, S. T. (2004). Innovation, organizational capabilities, and the born-global firm. Journal of International Business Studies, 35: 124–141. Knight, G. A., & Liesch, P. W. (2002). Information internalisation in internationalising the firm. Journal of Business Research, 55(12): 981–995. Kuivalainen, O., Sundqvist, S., Puumalainen, K., & Cadogan, J. W. (2004). The effect of environmental turbulence and leader characteristics on international performance: Are knowledge-based firms different? Canadian Journal of Administrative Sciences, 21(1): 35–50. Lee, C., Lee, K., & Pennings, J. M. (2001). Internal capabilities, external networks, and performance: A study on technology-based ventures. Strategic Management Journal, 22: 615–640. Leonidou, L. C. (2004). An analysis of the barriers hindering small business export development. Journal of Small Business Management, 42(3): 279–302. Leonidou, L. C., & Katsikeas, C. S. (1996). The export development process: An integrative review of empirical models. Journal of International Business Studies, 27(3): 517–551. Leonidou, L. C., Katsikeas, C. S., & Piercy, N. F. (1998). Identifying managerial influences on exporting: Past research and future directions. Journal of International Marketing, 6(2): 74–102. Liesch, P.W.,Welch, L. S.,Welch, D., McGaughey, S. L., Petersen, B., & Lamb, P. (2002). Evolving strands of research on firm internationalization— An Australian-Nordic perspective. International Studies of Management and Organization, 32(1): 16–35. Loane, S., McNaughton, R., & Bell, J. (2004). The Internationalization trajectories of entrepreneurial internet start-ups: Evidence S. Loane et al. / Journal of World Business 42 (2007) 489–504 503 from Europe and North America. Canadian Journal of Administrative Science, 21(1): 1–18. Lohrke, F. T., & Bruton, G. D. (1997). Contributions and gaps in international strategic management literature. Journal of International Management, 3: 25–57. Madsen, T. K., & Servais, P. (1997). The internationalization of born globals: An evolutionary process? International Business Review, 6: 561–583. Marschan-Piekkari, R., & Welch, C. (2004). Handbook of qualitative research methods for international business. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing. Marschan-Piekkari, R.,&Welch, C. (2006).Guest Editors’ introduction to the focused issue: Qualitative research methods in international business. Management International Review, 46(4): 391–396. McDougall, P. P., Shane, S., & Oviatt, B. M. (1994). Explaining the formation of international new ventures: The limits of theories from international business research. Journal of Business Venturing, 9: 469–487. McDougall, P. P., & Oviatt, B. M. (2000). International entrepreneurship; the intersection of two research paths. Academy of Management Journal, 43(5): 902–906. McDougall, P. P., Oviatt, B. M., & Shrader, R. C. (2003). A comparison of international and domestic new ventures. Journal of International Entrepreneurship, 1(1): 59–82. McKinsey & Co. (1993). Emerging exporters: Australia’s high valueadded manufacturing exporters. Melbourne: Australian Manufacturing Council. McGuinness, K., & Short, T. (1998). Research on the Net. London: Old Bailey Press. Miesenbock, K. J. (1988). Small business and exporting: A literature review. International Small Business Journal, 6(2): 42–61. Miles, R. E.,& Snow, C. C. (1978). Organizational strategy, structure, and process. McGraw-Hill: New York. Nahapiet, J., & Ghoshal, S. (1998). Social capital, intellectual capital, and the organizational advantage. Academy of Management Review, 23(2): 242–266. Oviatt, B. M., & McDougall, P. P. (2005). Defining international entrepreneurship and modeling the speed of internationalization. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 29(5): 537–554. Oviatt, B., & McDougall, P. (1994). Toward a theory of international new ventures. Journal of International Business Studies, 25(1): 45–64. Petersen, B., Pedersen, T., & Sharma, D. D. (2003). The role of knowledge in firms’ internationalization process: Wherefrom and whereto? In A. Blomstermo & D. D. Sharma (Eds.), Learning in the internationalization process of firms (pp. 36–55). Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar. Petersen, B., Welch, L. S., & Liesch, P. W. (2002). The Internet and foreign market expansion by firms. Management International Review, 42(2): 207–221. Ragin, C. (1987). The comparative method: Moving beyond the qualitative and quantitative strategies. University of California Press. Ragin, C., & Zaret, D. (1983). Theory and method in comparative research: Two strategies. Social Forces, 61: 731–754. Reid, S. D. (1983). Managerial and firm influences on export behavior. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 11(3): 323–332. Reuber, A. R., & Fischer, E. (1997). The influence of the management team’s international experience on the internationalization behaviours of SMEs. Journal of International Business Studies, 28(4): 807–825. Reuber, A. R., & Fischer, E. (2002). Foreign sales and small firm growth: The moderating role of the management team. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 27: 29–46. Rihoux, B., De Meur, G., Yamasaki, S., & Ronsse, S. (2003). An inventory of good QCA practice. http://smalln.spri.ucl.ac.be/ Didactics1GB.htm#1bis (accessed 12/9/2004). Ronen, S., & Shenkar, O. (1985). Clustering countries on attitudinal dimensions: A review and synthesis. Academy of Management Review, 10: 435–454. Sanders,W. G., & Carpenter, M. (1998). Internationalization and firm governance: The roles of CEO compensation, top team composition, and board structure. Academy of Management Journal, 41: 158–178. Saunders, M. N. K., Lewis, P., & Thornhill, A. (2003). Research methods for business students (3rd ed.). Harlow: Financial Times Prentice Hall. Shane, S., & Venkataraman, S. (2000). The promise of entrepreneurship as a field of research. Academy of Management Review, 25: 217–226. Shrader, R. C., Oviatt, B. M., & McDougall, P. P. (2000). How new ventures exploit trade-offs among international risk factors: Lessons for the accelerated internationalization of the 21st century. Academy of Management Journal, 43: 1227–1247. Sinkovics, R. R., Penz, E., & Ghauri, P. N. (2005). Analysing textual data in international marketing research. Qualitative Marketing Research: An International Journal, 8(1): 9–32. Vyakarnam, S., & Handelberg, J. J. A (2005). Four themes of the impact of management teams on organizational performance: Implications for future research of entrepreneurial teams. International Small Business Journal, 23(3): 236–256. Watson, W. E., Ponthieu, L., & Critelli, J. W. (1995). Team interpersonal process effectiveness in venture partnerships and its connection to perceived success. Journal of Business Venturing, 10: 393–411. Weerawardena, J., Mort, G. S., Liesch, P. W., & Knight, G. (2007). Conceptualizing accelerated internationalization in the born global firm: A dynamic capabilities perspective. Journal of World Business, 42(3). Welch, D. E., &Welch, L. S. (1996). The internationalization process and networks: A strategic management perspective. Journal of International Marketing, 4(3): 11–28. Yli-Renko, H., Autio, E., & Sapienza, H. (2001). Social capital, knowledge acquisition, and knowledge exploitation in young technology-based firms. Strategic Management Journal, 22(6– 7): 587–613. Zahra, S. A., & George, G. (2002). International entrepreneurship: Research contributions and future directions. In M. A. Hitt, R. D. Ireland, S. M. Camp, & D. L. Sexton (Eds.), Strategic entrepreneurship: Creating a new mindset (pp. 255–288). Oxford: Blackwell Publishers. Zou, S., & Stan, S. (1998). The determinants of export performance; a review of the empirical literature between 1987 and 1997. International Marketing Review, 15(5): 333–353.

PY - 2007/12

Y1 - 2007/12

N2 - While the importance of top management teams in the formation and development of new ventures is well recognised, their impact on the rapid internationalization of such firms remains relatively under-researched. This article presents the findings of a cross-national study conducted in Australia, Canada, Ireland and New Zealand that demonstrate the significant impact that such teams have in creating the core internal capabilities and leveraging the external resources required for rapid and dedicated internationalization. The need to augment the management team in order to address key resource or knowledge gaps and/or to expand international networks is also evident among many firms, as is the impact of changes in team structures on business strategy and internationalization. Directions for future research and implications for public policy in support of rapidly internationalizing small firms are presented and discussed.

AB - While the importance of top management teams in the formation and development of new ventures is well recognised, their impact on the rapid internationalization of such firms remains relatively under-researched. This article presents the findings of a cross-national study conducted in Australia, Canada, Ireland and New Zealand that demonstrate the significant impact that such teams have in creating the core internal capabilities and leveraging the external resources required for rapid and dedicated internationalization. The need to augment the management team in order to address key resource or knowledge gaps and/or to expand international networks is also evident among many firms, as is the impact of changes in team structures on business strategy and internationalization. Directions for future research and implications for public policy in support of rapidly internationalizing small firms are presented and discussed.

KW - Small firm

KW - Rapid internationalization

KW - Management teams

U2 - 10.1016/j.jwb.2007.06.009

DO - 10.1016/j.jwb.2007.06.009

M3 - Article

VL - 42

SP - 489

EP - 504

JO - Journal of World Business

T2 - Journal of World Business

JF - Journal of World Business

SN - 1090-9516

IS - 4

ER -