A Critical Overview of Household Slow Sand Filters for Water Treatment

B.L.S. Freitas, U.C. Terin, N.M.N. Fava, P.M.F. Maciel, L.A.T. Garcia, R.C. Medeiros, M. Oliveira, P. Fernandez-Ibañez, J.A. Byrne, L.P. Sabogal-Paz

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Household, or point-of-use (POU), water treatments are effective alternatives to provide safe drinking water in locations isolated from a water treatment and distribution network. The household slow sand filter (HSSF) is among the most effective and promising POU alternatives available today. Since the development of the patented biosand filter in the early 1990s, the HSSF has undergone a number of modifications and adaptations to improve its performance, making it easier to operate and increase users’ acceptability. Consequently, several HSSF models are currently available, including those with alternative designs and constant operation, in addition to the patented ones. In this scenario, the present paper aims to provide a comprehensive overview from the earliest to the most recent publications on the HSSF design, operational parameters, removal mechanisms, efficiency, and field experiences. Based on a critical discussion, this paper will contribute to expanding the knowledge of HSSF in the peer-reviewed literature.
Original languageEnglish
Article number117870
JournalWater Research
Early online date16 Nov 2021
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 16 Nov 2021


Dive into the research topics of 'A Critical Overview of Household Slow Sand Filters for Water Treatment'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this