A 16-week randomized clinical trial of 2000 international units daily vitamin D3 supplementation in black youth: 25-hydroxyvitamin D, adiposity, and arterial stiffness.

Yanbin Dong, Inger S. Stallmann-Jorgensen, Norman K. Pollock, Ryan A. Harris, Daniel Keeton, Ying Huang, Reda Bassali, De-huang Guo, Jeffrey Thomas, Gary L. Pierce, Jennifer White, Michael F. Holick, Haidong Zhu

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    188 Citations (Scopus)

    Abstract

    Context: Vitamin D insufficiency/deficiency is commonly observed in black youth.Objective: The aim was to determine 25-hydroxyvitaminD[25(OH)D] in response to 2000 IU vitaminD supplementation over time; to evaluate the relation between 25(OH)D concentrations and totalbody fat mass by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry; and to determine whether vitamin D supplementation improves arterial stiffness measured by pulse wave velocity (PWV).Design: We conducted a randomized, blinded, controlled clinical trial.Setting and Participants: Forty-nine normotensive black boys and girls, aged 16.3 1.4 yr, wererandomly assigned to either the control group (400 IU/d; n 24) or the experimental group (2000IU/d; n 25).Results: Plasma 25(OH)D values at baseline and at 4, 8, and 16 wk were 34.010.6, 44.99.4, 51.211.1, and 59.818.2 nmol/liter, respectively, for the control group; and 33.18.7, 55.011.8, 70.922.0, and 85.730.1 nmol/liter, respectively, for the experimental group. The experimental group vs.the control group reached significantly higher 25(OH)D concentrations at 8 and 16 wk, respectively.Partial correlation analyses indicated that totalbodyfatmassat baselinewassignificantlyandinverselyassociated with 25(OH)D concentrations in response to the 2000-IU supplement across time. Furthermore, carotid-femoralPWVincreased from baseline (5.380.53 m/sec) to posttest (5.710.75 m/sec) in the control group (P 0.016), whereas in the experimental group carotid-femoral PWV decreased from baseline (5.41 0.73 m/sec) to posttest (5.33 0.79 m/sec) (P 0.031).Conclusion: Daily 2000 IU vitamin D supplementation may be effective in optimizing vitamin Dstatus and counteracting the progression of aortic stiffness in black youth. Plasma 25(OH)D concentrations in response to the 2000 IU/d supplementation are negatively modulated by adiposity.
    LanguageEnglish
    Pages4584-4591
    JournalThe Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism
    Volume95
    Issue number10
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 1 Oct 2010

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    Vascular Stiffness
    Cholecalciferol
    Adiposity
    Randomized Controlled Trials
    Stiffness
    Vitamin D
    Control Groups
    Pulse Wave Analysis
    Plasmas
    Vitamin D Deficiency
    Thigh
    Vitamins
    Fats
    X-Rays
    X rays
    25-hydroxyvitamin D

    Cite this

    Dong, Yanbin ; Stallmann-Jorgensen, Inger S. ; Pollock, Norman K. ; Harris, Ryan A. ; Keeton, Daniel ; Huang, Ying ; Bassali, Reda ; Guo, De-huang ; Thomas, Jeffrey ; Pierce, Gary L. ; White, Jennifer ; Holick, Michael F. ; Zhu, Haidong. / A 16-week randomized clinical trial of 2000 international units daily vitamin D3 supplementation in black youth: 25-hydroxyvitamin D, adiposity, and arterial stiffness. In: The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism. 2010 ; Vol. 95, No. 10. pp. 4584-4591.
    @article{e1b741a356844912bc27121f10d54778,
    title = "A 16-week randomized clinical trial of 2000 international units daily vitamin D3 supplementation in black youth: 25-hydroxyvitamin D, adiposity, and arterial stiffness.",
    abstract = "Context: Vitamin D insufficiency/deficiency is commonly observed in black youth.Objective: The aim was to determine 25-hydroxyvitaminD[25(OH)D] in response to 2000 IU vitaminD supplementation over time; to evaluate the relation between 25(OH)D concentrations and totalbody fat mass by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry; and to determine whether vitamin D supplementation improves arterial stiffness measured by pulse wave velocity (PWV).Design: We conducted a randomized, blinded, controlled clinical trial.Setting and Participants: Forty-nine normotensive black boys and girls, aged 16.3 1.4 yr, wererandomly assigned to either the control group (400 IU/d; n 24) or the experimental group (2000IU/d; n 25).Results: Plasma 25(OH)D values at baseline and at 4, 8, and 16 wk were 34.010.6, 44.99.4, 51.211.1, and 59.818.2 nmol/liter, respectively, for the control group; and 33.18.7, 55.011.8, 70.922.0, and 85.730.1 nmol/liter, respectively, for the experimental group. The experimental group vs.the control group reached significantly higher 25(OH)D concentrations at 8 and 16 wk, respectively.Partial correlation analyses indicated that totalbodyfatmassat baselinewassignificantlyandinverselyassociated with 25(OH)D concentrations in response to the 2000-IU supplement across time. Furthermore, carotid-femoralPWVincreased from baseline (5.380.53 m/sec) to posttest (5.710.75 m/sec) in the control group (P 0.016), whereas in the experimental group carotid-femoral PWV decreased from baseline (5.41 0.73 m/sec) to posttest (5.33 0.79 m/sec) (P 0.031).Conclusion: Daily 2000 IU vitamin D supplementation may be effective in optimizing vitamin Dstatus and counteracting the progression of aortic stiffness in black youth. Plasma 25(OH)D concentrations in response to the 2000 IU/d supplementation are negatively modulated by adiposity.",
    author = "Yanbin Dong and Stallmann-Jorgensen, {Inger S.} and Pollock, {Norman K.} and Harris, {Ryan A.} and Daniel Keeton and Ying Huang and Reda Bassali and De-huang Guo and Jeffrey Thomas and Pierce, {Gary L.} and Jennifer White and Holick, {Michael F.} and Haidong Zhu",
    note = "Reference text: 1. Dong Y, Pollock N, Stallmann-Jorgensen IS, Gutin B, Lan L, Chen TC, Keeton D, Petty K, Holick MF, ZhuH2010Low25-hydroxyvitamin D levels in adolescents: race, season, adiposity, physical activity, and fitness. Pediatrics 125:1104–1111 2. Kumar J, Muntner P, Kaskel FJ, Hailpern SM, Melamed ML 2009 Prevalence and associations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D deficiency in US children: NHANES 2001–2004. Pediatrics 124:362–370 3. Reis JP, von Muhlen D, Miller 3rd ER, Michos ED, Appel LJ 2009 Vitamin D status and cardiometabolic risk factors in the United States adolescent population. Pediatrics 124: 371–379 4. Holick MF 2008 The vitamin D deficiency pandemic and consequences for nonskeletal health: mechanisms of action. Mol Aspects Med 29:361–368 5. Wagner CL, Greer FR 2008 Prevention of rickets and vitamin D deficiency in infants, children, and adolescents. Pediatrics 122:1142–1152 6. Rajakumar K, Fernstrom JD, Holick MF, Janosky JE, Greenspan SL 2008 Vitamin D status and response to vitamin D(3) in obese vs. non-obese African-American children. Obesity (Silver Spring) 16: 90–95 7. Stellinga-Boelen AA, Wiegersma PA, Storm H, Bijleveld CM, Verkade HJ 2007 Vitamin D levels in children of asylum seekers in The Netherlands in relation to season and dietary intake. Eur J Pediatr 166:201–206 8. Bischoff-Ferrari HA, Giovannucci E, Willett WC, Dietrich T, Dawson-Hughes B 2006 Estimation of optimal serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D for multiple health outcomes. Am J Clin Nutr 84:18–28 9. Yates AA, Schlicker SA, Suitor CW 1998 Dietary reference intakes for calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, vitamin D and fluoride. J Am Diet Assoc 98:699–706 10. Dawson-Hughes B, Heaney RP, Holick MF, Lips P, Meunier PJ, Vieth R 2005 Estimates of optimal vitaminDstatus. Osteoporos Int 16:713–716 11. Heaney RP, DaviesKM,ChenTC,HolickMF,Barger-LuxMJ2003 Human serum 25-hydroxycholecalciferol response to extended oral dosing with cholecalciferol. Am J Clin Nutr 77:204–210 12. Heaney RP 2005 The vitamin D requirement in health and disease. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 97:13–19 13. Zhu H, Yan W, Ge D, Treiber FA, Harshfield GA, Kapuku G, Snieder H, DongY2007 Cardiovascular characteristics in American youth with prehypertension. Am J Hypertens 20:1051–1057 14. McCartyCA2008 Sunlight exposure assessment: can we accurately assess vitamin D exposure from sunlight questionnaires? Am J Clin Nutr 87:1097S–1101S 15. Janz KF, Lutuchy EM, Wenthe P, Levy SM2008 Measuring activity in children and adolescents using self-report: PAQ-C and PAQ-A. Med Sci Sports Exerc 40:767–772 16. Kapuku GK, Treiber FA, Davis HC, Harshfield GA, Cook BB, Mensah GA 1999 Hemodynamic function at rest, during acute stress, and in the field: predictors of cardiac structure and function 2 years later in youth. Hypertension 34:1026–1031 17. Chobanian AV, Bakris GL, Black HR, Cushman WC, Green LA, Izzo Jr JL, Jones DW, Materson BJ, Oparil S, Wright Jr JT, Roccella EJ 2003 The Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure: the JNC 7 report. JAMA 289:2560–2572 18. Nichols W, O’RourkeMF1998 McDonald’s blood flow in arteries: theoretical, experimental and clinical principles. 4th ed. London: Arnold 19. Holick MF, Siris ES, Binkley N, Beard MK, Khan A, Katzer JT, Petruschke RA, Chen E, de Papp AE 2005 Prevalence of vitamin D inadequacy among postmenopausal North American women receiving osteoporosis therapy. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 90:3215– 3224 20. Holick MF 2006 High prevalence of vitamin D inadequacy and implications for health. Mayo Clin Proc 81:353–373 21. Vieth R 1999 Vitamin D supplementation, 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations, and safety. Am J Clin Nutr 69:842–856 22. Maalouf J, Nabulsi M, Vieth R, Kimball S, El-Rassi R, Mahfoud Z, El-Hajj FuleihanG2008 Short- and long-term safety of weekly highdose vitamin D3 supplementation in school children. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 93:2693–2701 23. Guillemant J, Le HT, Maria A, Allemandou A, Pe´re`s G, Guillemant S 2001 Wintertime vitamin D deficiency in male adolescents: effect on parathyroid function and response to vitamin D3 supplements. Osteoporos Int 12:875–879 24. Weaver CM, McCabe LD, McCabe GP, Braun M, Martin BR, Dimeglio LA, Peacock M 2008 Vitamin D status and calcium metabolism in adolescent black and white girls on a range of controlled calcium intakes. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 93:3907–3914 25. Valin˜ a-To´ th AL, Lai Z, Yoo W, Abou-Samra A, Gadegbeku CA, FlackJM2010 Relationship of vitaminDand parathyroid hormone to obesity and body composition in African-Americans. Clin Endo 26. Vieth R, El-Hajj Fuleihan G 2005 There is no lower threshold level for parathyroid hormone as 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations increase. J Endocrinol Invest 28:183–186 27. Gordon CM, DePeter KC, Feldman HA, Grace E, Emans SJ 2004 Prevalence of vitaminDdeficiency among healthy adolescents. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 158:531–537 28. LookerAC2005 Body fat and vitaminDstatus in black versus white women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 90:635–640 29. Saintonge S, Bang H, Gerber LM 2009 Implications of a new definition of vitamin D deficiency in a multiracial US adolescent population: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III. Pediatrics 123:797–803 30. Lee P, Greenfield JR, Seibel MJ, Eisman JA, Center JR 2009 Adequacy of vitamin Dreplacement in severe deficiency is dependent on body mass index. Am J Med 122:1056–1060 31. Wortsman J, Matsuoka LY, Chen TC, Lu Z, Holick MF 2000 Decreased bioavailability of vitamin D in obesity. Am J Clin Nutr 72:690–693 32. Sugden JA, Davies JI, Witham MD, Morris AD, Struthers AD 2008 Vitamin D improves endothelial function in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and low vitaminDlevels. DiabetMed25:320–325 33. Tarcin O, Yavuz DG, Ozben B, Telli A, Ogunc AV, Yuksel M, Toprak A, Yazici D, Sancak S, Deyneli O, Akalin S 2009 Effect of vitamin D deficiency and replacement on endothelial function in asymptomatic subjects. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 94:4023–4030 34. London GM, Gue´rin AP, Verbeke FH, Pannier B, Boutouyrie P, Marchais SJ,Me¨tivier F 2007 Mineral metabolism and arterial functions in end-stage renal disease: potential role of 25-hydroxyvitamin D deficiency. J Am Soc Nephrol 18:613–620 35. Freedman BI, Wagenknecht LE, HairstonKG,BowdenDW,Carr JJ, Hightower RC, Gordon EJ, Xu J, Langefeld CD, Divers J 2010 Vitamin D, adiposity, and calcified atherosclerotic plaque in African- Americans. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 95:1076–1083 36. Pilz S, Tomaschitz A, Ritz E, Pieber TR 2009 Vitamin D status and arterial hypertension: a systematic review. Nat Rev Cardiol 6:621–630 37. Richart T, Li Y, Staessen JA 2007 Renal versus extrarenal activation of vitamin D in relation to atherosclerosis, arterial stiffening, and hypertension. Am J Hypertens 20:1007–1015 38. Pittas AG, Harris SS, Stark PC, Dawson-Hughes B 2007 The effects of calcium and vitamin D supplementation on blood glucose and markers of inflammation in nondiabetic adults. Diabetes Care 30: 980–986 39. MitkaM2009 More evidence on low vitamin D levels fuels push to revise recommended intake. JAMA 302:2527–2528 40. Berenson GS, Srinivasan SR, Bao W, Newman 3rd WP, Tracy RE, Wattigney WA 1998 Association between multiple cardiovascular risk factors and atherosclerosis in children and young adults. The Bogalusa Heart Study. N Engl J Med 338:1650–1656",
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    Dong, Y, Stallmann-Jorgensen, IS, Pollock, NK, Harris, RA, Keeton, D, Huang, Y, Bassali, R, Guo, D, Thomas, J, Pierce, GL, White, J, Holick, MF & Zhu, H 2010, 'A 16-week randomized clinical trial of 2000 international units daily vitamin D3 supplementation in black youth: 25-hydroxyvitamin D, adiposity, and arterial stiffness.', The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, vol. 95, no. 10, pp. 4584-4591. https://doi.org/10.1210/jc.2010-0606

    A 16-week randomized clinical trial of 2000 international units daily vitamin D3 supplementation in black youth: 25-hydroxyvitamin D, adiposity, and arterial stiffness. / Dong, Yanbin; Stallmann-Jorgensen, Inger S.; Pollock, Norman K.; Harris, Ryan A.; Keeton, Daniel; Huang, Ying; Bassali, Reda; Guo, De-huang; Thomas, Jeffrey; Pierce, Gary L.; White, Jennifer; Holick, Michael F.; Zhu, Haidong.

    In: The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, Vol. 95, No. 10, 01.10.2010, p. 4584-4591.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    TY - JOUR

    T1 - A 16-week randomized clinical trial of 2000 international units daily vitamin D3 supplementation in black youth: 25-hydroxyvitamin D, adiposity, and arterial stiffness.

    AU - Dong, Yanbin

    AU - Stallmann-Jorgensen, Inger S.

    AU - Pollock, Norman K.

    AU - Harris, Ryan A.

    AU - Keeton, Daniel

    AU - Huang, Ying

    AU - Bassali, Reda

    AU - Guo, De-huang

    AU - Thomas, Jeffrey

    AU - Pierce, Gary L.

    AU - White, Jennifer

    AU - Holick, Michael F.

    AU - Zhu, Haidong

    N1 - Reference text: 1. Dong Y, Pollock N, Stallmann-Jorgensen IS, Gutin B, Lan L, Chen TC, Keeton D, Petty K, Holick MF, ZhuH2010Low25-hydroxyvitamin D levels in adolescents: race, season, adiposity, physical activity, and fitness. Pediatrics 125:1104–1111 2. Kumar J, Muntner P, Kaskel FJ, Hailpern SM, Melamed ML 2009 Prevalence and associations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D deficiency in US children: NHANES 2001–2004. Pediatrics 124:362–370 3. Reis JP, von Muhlen D, Miller 3rd ER, Michos ED, Appel LJ 2009 Vitamin D status and cardiometabolic risk factors in the United States adolescent population. Pediatrics 124: 371–379 4. Holick MF 2008 The vitamin D deficiency pandemic and consequences for nonskeletal health: mechanisms of action. Mol Aspects Med 29:361–368 5. Wagner CL, Greer FR 2008 Prevention of rickets and vitamin D deficiency in infants, children, and adolescents. Pediatrics 122:1142–1152 6. Rajakumar K, Fernstrom JD, Holick MF, Janosky JE, Greenspan SL 2008 Vitamin D status and response to vitamin D(3) in obese vs. non-obese African-American children. Obesity (Silver Spring) 16: 90–95 7. Stellinga-Boelen AA, Wiegersma PA, Storm H, Bijleveld CM, Verkade HJ 2007 Vitamin D levels in children of asylum seekers in The Netherlands in relation to season and dietary intake. Eur J Pediatr 166:201–206 8. Bischoff-Ferrari HA, Giovannucci E, Willett WC, Dietrich T, Dawson-Hughes B 2006 Estimation of optimal serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D for multiple health outcomes. Am J Clin Nutr 84:18–28 9. Yates AA, Schlicker SA, Suitor CW 1998 Dietary reference intakes for calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, vitamin D and fluoride. J Am Diet Assoc 98:699–706 10. Dawson-Hughes B, Heaney RP, Holick MF, Lips P, Meunier PJ, Vieth R 2005 Estimates of optimal vitaminDstatus. Osteoporos Int 16:713–716 11. Heaney RP, DaviesKM,ChenTC,HolickMF,Barger-LuxMJ2003 Human serum 25-hydroxycholecalciferol response to extended oral dosing with cholecalciferol. Am J Clin Nutr 77:204–210 12. Heaney RP 2005 The vitamin D requirement in health and disease. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 97:13–19 13. Zhu H, Yan W, Ge D, Treiber FA, Harshfield GA, Kapuku G, Snieder H, DongY2007 Cardiovascular characteristics in American youth with prehypertension. Am J Hypertens 20:1051–1057 14. McCartyCA2008 Sunlight exposure assessment: can we accurately assess vitamin D exposure from sunlight questionnaires? Am J Clin Nutr 87:1097S–1101S 15. Janz KF, Lutuchy EM, Wenthe P, Levy SM2008 Measuring activity in children and adolescents using self-report: PAQ-C and PAQ-A. Med Sci Sports Exerc 40:767–772 16. Kapuku GK, Treiber FA, Davis HC, Harshfield GA, Cook BB, Mensah GA 1999 Hemodynamic function at rest, during acute stress, and in the field: predictors of cardiac structure and function 2 years later in youth. Hypertension 34:1026–1031 17. Chobanian AV, Bakris GL, Black HR, Cushman WC, Green LA, Izzo Jr JL, Jones DW, Materson BJ, Oparil S, Wright Jr JT, Roccella EJ 2003 The Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure: the JNC 7 report. JAMA 289:2560–2572 18. Nichols W, O’RourkeMF1998 McDonald’s blood flow in arteries: theoretical, experimental and clinical principles. 4th ed. London: Arnold 19. Holick MF, Siris ES, Binkley N, Beard MK, Khan A, Katzer JT, Petruschke RA, Chen E, de Papp AE 2005 Prevalence of vitamin D inadequacy among postmenopausal North American women receiving osteoporosis therapy. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 90:3215– 3224 20. Holick MF 2006 High prevalence of vitamin D inadequacy and implications for health. Mayo Clin Proc 81:353–373 21. Vieth R 1999 Vitamin D supplementation, 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations, and safety. Am J Clin Nutr 69:842–856 22. Maalouf J, Nabulsi M, Vieth R, Kimball S, El-Rassi R, Mahfoud Z, El-Hajj FuleihanG2008 Short- and long-term safety of weekly highdose vitamin D3 supplementation in school children. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 93:2693–2701 23. Guillemant J, Le HT, Maria A, Allemandou A, Pe´re`s G, Guillemant S 2001 Wintertime vitamin D deficiency in male adolescents: effect on parathyroid function and response to vitamin D3 supplements. Osteoporos Int 12:875–879 24. Weaver CM, McCabe LD, McCabe GP, Braun M, Martin BR, Dimeglio LA, Peacock M 2008 Vitamin D status and calcium metabolism in adolescent black and white girls on a range of controlled calcium intakes. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 93:3907–3914 25. Valin˜ a-To´ th AL, Lai Z, Yoo W, Abou-Samra A, Gadegbeku CA, FlackJM2010 Relationship of vitaminDand parathyroid hormone to obesity and body composition in African-Americans. Clin Endo 26. Vieth R, El-Hajj Fuleihan G 2005 There is no lower threshold level for parathyroid hormone as 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations increase. J Endocrinol Invest 28:183–186 27. Gordon CM, DePeter KC, Feldman HA, Grace E, Emans SJ 2004 Prevalence of vitaminDdeficiency among healthy adolescents. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 158:531–537 28. LookerAC2005 Body fat and vitaminDstatus in black versus white women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 90:635–640 29. Saintonge S, Bang H, Gerber LM 2009 Implications of a new definition of vitamin D deficiency in a multiracial US adolescent population: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III. Pediatrics 123:797–803 30. Lee P, Greenfield JR, Seibel MJ, Eisman JA, Center JR 2009 Adequacy of vitamin Dreplacement in severe deficiency is dependent on body mass index. Am J Med 122:1056–1060 31. Wortsman J, Matsuoka LY, Chen TC, Lu Z, Holick MF 2000 Decreased bioavailability of vitamin D in obesity. Am J Clin Nutr 72:690–693 32. Sugden JA, Davies JI, Witham MD, Morris AD, Struthers AD 2008 Vitamin D improves endothelial function in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and low vitaminDlevels. DiabetMed25:320–325 33. Tarcin O, Yavuz DG, Ozben B, Telli A, Ogunc AV, Yuksel M, Toprak A, Yazici D, Sancak S, Deyneli O, Akalin S 2009 Effect of vitamin D deficiency and replacement on endothelial function in asymptomatic subjects. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 94:4023–4030 34. London GM, Gue´rin AP, Verbeke FH, Pannier B, Boutouyrie P, Marchais SJ,Me¨tivier F 2007 Mineral metabolism and arterial functions in end-stage renal disease: potential role of 25-hydroxyvitamin D deficiency. J Am Soc Nephrol 18:613–620 35. Freedman BI, Wagenknecht LE, HairstonKG,BowdenDW,Carr JJ, Hightower RC, Gordon EJ, Xu J, Langefeld CD, Divers J 2010 Vitamin D, adiposity, and calcified atherosclerotic plaque in African- Americans. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 95:1076–1083 36. Pilz S, Tomaschitz A, Ritz E, Pieber TR 2009 Vitamin D status and arterial hypertension: a systematic review. Nat Rev Cardiol 6:621–630 37. Richart T, Li Y, Staessen JA 2007 Renal versus extrarenal activation of vitamin D in relation to atherosclerosis, arterial stiffening, and hypertension. Am J Hypertens 20:1007–1015 38. Pittas AG, Harris SS, Stark PC, Dawson-Hughes B 2007 The effects of calcium and vitamin D supplementation on blood glucose and markers of inflammation in nondiabetic adults. Diabetes Care 30: 980–986 39. MitkaM2009 More evidence on low vitamin D levels fuels push to revise recommended intake. JAMA 302:2527–2528 40. Berenson GS, Srinivasan SR, Bao W, Newman 3rd WP, Tracy RE, Wattigney WA 1998 Association between multiple cardiovascular risk factors and atherosclerosis in children and young adults. The Bogalusa Heart Study. N Engl J Med 338:1650–1656

    PY - 2010/10/1

    Y1 - 2010/10/1

    N2 - Context: Vitamin D insufficiency/deficiency is commonly observed in black youth.Objective: The aim was to determine 25-hydroxyvitaminD[25(OH)D] in response to 2000 IU vitaminD supplementation over time; to evaluate the relation between 25(OH)D concentrations and totalbody fat mass by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry; and to determine whether vitamin D supplementation improves arterial stiffness measured by pulse wave velocity (PWV).Design: We conducted a randomized, blinded, controlled clinical trial.Setting and Participants: Forty-nine normotensive black boys and girls, aged 16.3 1.4 yr, wererandomly assigned to either the control group (400 IU/d; n 24) or the experimental group (2000IU/d; n 25).Results: Plasma 25(OH)D values at baseline and at 4, 8, and 16 wk were 34.010.6, 44.99.4, 51.211.1, and 59.818.2 nmol/liter, respectively, for the control group; and 33.18.7, 55.011.8, 70.922.0, and 85.730.1 nmol/liter, respectively, for the experimental group. The experimental group vs.the control group reached significantly higher 25(OH)D concentrations at 8 and 16 wk, respectively.Partial correlation analyses indicated that totalbodyfatmassat baselinewassignificantlyandinverselyassociated with 25(OH)D concentrations in response to the 2000-IU supplement across time. Furthermore, carotid-femoralPWVincreased from baseline (5.380.53 m/sec) to posttest (5.710.75 m/sec) in the control group (P 0.016), whereas in the experimental group carotid-femoral PWV decreased from baseline (5.41 0.73 m/sec) to posttest (5.33 0.79 m/sec) (P 0.031).Conclusion: Daily 2000 IU vitamin D supplementation may be effective in optimizing vitamin Dstatus and counteracting the progression of aortic stiffness in black youth. Plasma 25(OH)D concentrations in response to the 2000 IU/d supplementation are negatively modulated by adiposity.

    AB - Context: Vitamin D insufficiency/deficiency is commonly observed in black youth.Objective: The aim was to determine 25-hydroxyvitaminD[25(OH)D] in response to 2000 IU vitaminD supplementation over time; to evaluate the relation between 25(OH)D concentrations and totalbody fat mass by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry; and to determine whether vitamin D supplementation improves arterial stiffness measured by pulse wave velocity (PWV).Design: We conducted a randomized, blinded, controlled clinical trial.Setting and Participants: Forty-nine normotensive black boys and girls, aged 16.3 1.4 yr, wererandomly assigned to either the control group (400 IU/d; n 24) or the experimental group (2000IU/d; n 25).Results: Plasma 25(OH)D values at baseline and at 4, 8, and 16 wk were 34.010.6, 44.99.4, 51.211.1, and 59.818.2 nmol/liter, respectively, for the control group; and 33.18.7, 55.011.8, 70.922.0, and 85.730.1 nmol/liter, respectively, for the experimental group. The experimental group vs.the control group reached significantly higher 25(OH)D concentrations at 8 and 16 wk, respectively.Partial correlation analyses indicated that totalbodyfatmassat baselinewassignificantlyandinverselyassociated with 25(OH)D concentrations in response to the 2000-IU supplement across time. Furthermore, carotid-femoralPWVincreased from baseline (5.380.53 m/sec) to posttest (5.710.75 m/sec) in the control group (P 0.016), whereas in the experimental group carotid-femoral PWV decreased from baseline (5.41 0.73 m/sec) to posttest (5.33 0.79 m/sec) (P 0.031).Conclusion: Daily 2000 IU vitamin D supplementation may be effective in optimizing vitamin Dstatus and counteracting the progression of aortic stiffness in black youth. Plasma 25(OH)D concentrations in response to the 2000 IU/d supplementation are negatively modulated by adiposity.

    U2 - 10.1210/jc.2010-0606

    DO - 10.1210/jc.2010-0606

    M3 - Article

    VL - 95

    SP - 4584

    EP - 4591

    JO - Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism

    T2 - Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism

    JF - Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism

    SN - 0021-972X

    IS - 10

    ER -