2D materials, synthesis, characterization and toxicity: A critical review

Gowhar A Naikoo, Fareeha Arshad, Muniba Almas, Israr U Hassan, Mona Z Pedram, Alaa A A Aljabali, Vijay Mishra, Ángel Serrano-Aroca, Martin Birkett, Nitin B Charbe, Rohit Goyal, Poonam Negi, Mohamed El-Tanani, Murtaza M Tambuwala

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

14 Citations (Scopus)
104 Downloads (Pure)


Nanotechnology is an arena of exploration and innovation concerned with building things generally, advancing resources and devices based on highly specific and superior nanomaterials with unmatched properties dependent on their morphology and diameter. 2D materials such as graphene have unique properties and applications varying from imaging, delivery of drugs, and theranostics of diseases. Each 2D material, ranging from the graphene family, MXenes, chalcogenides, and 2D oxides, have a unique potential based on their shape and morphology. In addition, 2D materials have intriguing physiochemical characteristics, increased aspect ratio and associated increased reactivity that make them an ideal contender in multiple applications. This review aims to answer the existing knowledge gaps in various 2D materials having interdisciplinary roles. We have presented a brief overview of the 2D materials, followed by their synthesis methods and techniques. We have also highlighted the different characterization methods used to characterise various 2D materials. Next, we performed an in-depth analysis of the potential toxicities of 2D materials to assess their risks in multiple applications. Lastly, we conclude our review by presenting the challenges and future perspectives of 2D materials as promising forerunners of science and technology. [Abstract copyright: Copyright © 2022 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.]
Original languageEnglish
Article number110081
Pages (from-to)1-16
Number of pages16
JournalChemico-Biological Interactions
Early online date7 Aug 2022
Publication statusPublished (in print/issue) - 25 Sept 2022

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
G. A. Naikoo, Israr U. Hassan acknowledge the support received from the research council of Oman.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 The Authors


  • Graphene
  • 2D materials
  • Characterization
  • Toxicity
  • Synthesis


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