"The Northern Ireland Protocol needs fixing and now is the time to do it"

Press/Media: Expert Comment


Article in The Times by Mark Littlewood (Director General of the Institute of Economic Affairs) which cited by assessment of the combined private+public sector annual cost of the Protocol


"...the financial burden of this endeavour is eye-watering. Esmond Birnie, the economist, has calculated the cost at £850 million per annum. That is the equivalent of 2% of Northern Ireland's total GDP"


Article in The Times evaluating the Northern Ireland Protocol refers to my own research on the same

Period16 May 2022

Media coverage


Media coverage


  • Northern Ireland
  • Northern Ireland economy, UK economy, economic growth, productivity, GDP, GVA, economic growth
  • Northern Ireland Brexit
  • Northern Ireland Protocol
  • Economic costs and benefits of the Northern Ireland Protocol
  • Economic costs of the Protocol